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Diarrhea at school what to do

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Many of you, of course, are aware of diseases such as AIDS, cancer, hepatitis, diabetes, and finally bird flu, and I want to believe that none of you have ever laughed at people affected by these or any other ailments. But then tell me why another, no less terrible disease, seems to us an extremely funny subject for conversation (it is generally strange how conversation can turn into this direction). I, as you probably already understood, I'm talking about diarrhea. How many funny jokes, and cases from life (supposedly not from our own), we know on this subject, yes, all we would have to laugh and cajole. However, just think about the horror that befell a person who fell into the arms of diarrhea at the wrong time, and if there are no toilets nearby, and if the cork, while you are driving, all the colors of life will immediately fade, and its purpose will shrink to the size of a small room, with the cherished a seat and a drain tank behind a tight-fitting door. If hepatitis is a gentle killer, then diarrhea is a cruel and merciless killer, and it is unlikely to die from diarrhea, while death seems to be the easiest way to get rid of torment. Yes, such a dangerous enemy must be known in person!

If you don’t know, or pretend that you don’t know what diarrhea is, then I’ll remind you: diarrhea is a change in the frequency and consistency of the stool, it is characterized by an unusually frequent loose or watery stool. The following types of diarrhea are distinguished: bacterial, viral, parasitic origin, travelers' diarrhea, diarrhea of ​​homosexual men (no comments in advance), diarrhea in AIDS patients, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and bacteria overgrowth syndrome.

Let us dwell on some types in more detail. Paradoxically, bacterial diarrhea is caused by the action of pathogenic bacteria; in addition to diarrhea, acute abdominal pains are also observed. You should know that in most cases, bacterial diarrhea goes away on its own within 5 days (5 days of diarrhea (!), Yes, really a trifle), this does not apply to cholera, which, with the same symptoms, without proper treatment ends in death. Viral and parasitic origin of diarrhea is accompanied by fever and vomiting. In this case, immediate medical attention and hospitalization are required.

Diarrhea of ​​travelers most often occurs when traveling to countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America and is caused by a change in the nature of food, climatic features and nervous stress. Diarrhea of ​​travelers usually begins abruptly, occurs with cramping abdominal pain and a slight increase in temperature. Signs of dehydration, as a rule, are not observed, and the symptoms of the disease disappear spontaneously within 3-4 days.

The greatest danger with diarrhea lies in dehydration (you can disagree with me), so you need to use different fluids or a special rehydration solution - "Rehydron" - you can buy it in a pharmacy, or you can prepare it yourself - add to one liter of clean water: half a teaspoon of salt, eight teaspoons of sugar, mashed ripe banana or marmalade.

In case of diarrhea, several rules should be remembered: do not eat or drink milk and dairy products, fresh fruits and vegetables, coffee, spicy foods, salted products (salted soups, chips, nuts). Do not drink drinks with a high sugar content, such as grape or apple juice, soft drinks, including cola, do not eat very sweet foods (sweets, ice cream). Do not take medications without a doctor’s prescription; measure your body temperature once a day. If diarrhea is accompanied by high fever, feces does not have a natural color or bloody inclusions, there are severe abdominal pains, rashes or swelling on the body, vomiting, and if you suspect poisoning with drugs, chemicals or other substances, then consult a doctor immediately.

If diarrhea is taken by surprise, take Imodium (aka lopedium, aka loperamide), as the advertisement says, but no more than four 2 milligram capsules per day. An overdose can greatly complicate breathing and cause irreversible dysfunctions of the central nervous system, and sometimes death. But children should not be given it at all.

Remember that only ... traffic jams can give an instant effect, because if you suspect that you will soon have diarrhea (it twists your stomach very much in the morning), take Imodium in advance and take care of having a toilet nearby (if you are outside, then the toilet can be found in McDonald's eateries ) The prudence would be to take some toilet paper with you, since our toilets, especially in schools and universities, for some reason are not equipped with it.

How is treatment of intestinal infection in children determined?

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The incidence of acute intestinal infection (AEI) in children is slightly inferior to ARVI and influenza. The disease proceeds quite severely, causing severe discomfort to the child and causing great concern to his parents.

Why does it occur and how is the treatment of intestinal infection in children taking place, is it possible to carry out therapy at home, or is it necessary to hospitalize the patient.

Intestinal infection in children

Intestinal infection in a child is an inflammatory process on the mucous membrane of the digestive tract, resulting from the ingestion of pathogenic microorganisms orally. That is, the infection enters the digestive tract with food, through dirty hands or objects.

Infectious infection can be divided by the type of pathogenic organism:

  • bacterial
  • viral
  • fungal
  • protozoal.

The most common bacterial and viral acute intestinal infection.

Bacterial OKI

The causative agent of bacterial OCI are:

  • E. coli
  • staphylococci,
  • gonococci
  • salmonella,
  • cholera,
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
  • botulinum toxin and others.

Signs of a bacterial infection, like a viral infection, are abdominal pain, vomiting, weakness, and diarrhea. Without laboratory testing, it is rather difficult to determine what exactly is a bacterial intestinal infection. But there are at least two signs that are more inherent in OCI against the background of bacterial infection:

  • symptoms of intoxication (weakness, fever, nausea, headache, chills) are very pronounced,
  • feces has a green tint, it has an admixture of mucus.

Acute intestinal infection in children occurs within 3 days after infection. The temperature rises sharply to 38 degrees and without etiological treatment can last quite a long time.

Viral OKI

Viral intestinal infections in children occur no less often than bacterial ones. The causative agents are:

Symptoms of pathology, in addition to nausea, vomiting and severe physical weakness, include high (above 39 degrees) temperature and watery yellow stools. In this case, the incubation period can last up to 30 days, although in most cases the disease manifests itself 7-10 days after infection.

For proper and effective treatment, it is very important to identify what is the causative agent of the pathological process. The doctor may partially focus on such signs:

  • chair color
  • the presence or absence of intoxication,
  • fever.

However, accurate information can only be obtained through laboratory diagnostics.

The problem is that the results of medical tests can be obtained only after 3 days. Therefore, up to this point, doctors prescribe a wide range of drugs to the patient.

Five rules to follow for intestinal infections

Treatment for intestinal infection in children should be determined only by the attending physician. Self-medication can aggravate the condition of the child, lead to the development of serious complications, and distort the symptomatic picture. Therefore, each parent should study the memo of the five rules on how to behave in the event that the child is ill with OCI:

  1. The patient must drink plenty of water, preferably boiled. The rule applies even to infants, which should be watered from the nipples. This will reduce the risk of dehydration and help the body remove pathogens and toxins naturally.
  2. During the acute stage of the disease, when the clinical picture is clearly expressed, the child should not be fed. As a rule, the patient has no appetite - in this way the body helps itself to struggle with the pathology without adding a functional load to the digestive tract.
  3. To help the child’s body get rid of pathogens faster, you can use enterosorbents: activated charcoal or Enterosgel at the rate of 1 tablet or 1 teaspoon of gel per 10 kg of patient’s body weight.
  4. At high temperatures, you can reduce it with the help of special drugs. Acetylsalicylic acid, which greatly increases the risk of internal bleeding, is categorically prohibited.
  5. Vomiting and diarrhea are a physiological way of an organism to get rid of a source of pathology. But if these two symptoms are too pronounced, the child may experience dehydration and the resulting hypovolemic shock.

The first actions of the mother are designed for the period until the arrival of the attending physician, it is impossible to completely cure the child with the described methods, since they do not have the main condition for therapy - eliminating the root cause of the pathology.

What parents do not need to do

The list of recommendations on how to behave to parents whose children are ill with OCI will be incomplete, if you do not remember that you can’t categorically do so in order not to face life-threatening and health-related consequences:

  1. At the first manifestations of diarrhea and vomiting, you can not give the child astringent and antiemetic drugs, as this will entail severe intoxication of the body. It is better to give the child enterosorbents and a large amount of liquid.
  2. The second thing that can not be given to a child with intestinal infection is painkillers before the doctor’s visit. If the child’s condition is serious, you need to call an ambulance, and up to this point, support the child’s well-being with non-medication - wiping the body with a wet towel, a cool compress on the head.
  3. It is strictly forbidden to give the patient an enema.

Combining the recommendations, we can say that self-medication is strictly prohibited for children with acute intestinal infections. Medicines can conflict with each other, enhancing or leveling each other's actions. Therefore, the effect of drugs prescribed by a doctor can be unpredictable if before that the parents gave the child medication at their own discretion. In addition, this distorts the symptomatic picture and prevents quick and accurate diagnosis.

Serious symptoms

Among the signs of acute intestinal infection, there are symptoms that indicate that you need to immediately and definitely call an ambulance.

  1. Neurotoxicosis is a toxic effect on the brain, manifested in the form of delirium, hallucinations, seizures.
  2. Circulatory disturbance - lowering blood pressure (especially sharp), blue skin.
  3. Renal failure - lower back pain, decreased urine output or its complete absence, dark urine due to an impurity of blood in it.
  4. Hypovolemic shock - acute dehydration, which provokes poisoning and high fever.
  5. Excessive severity of any symptoms, for example, severe vomiting or diarrhea, abdominal pain.

What can a doctor prescribe

Treatment of intestinal infections in children begins with a diagnosis. After that it is necessary:

  • eliminate the root cause of the disease (etiological treatment),
  • improve the well-being of a small patient (symptomatic treatment),
  • Replenish the amount of fluid that a child with acute intestinal infections loses with vomiting and diarrhea (oral rehydration).

The main part of the treatment is the fight against the root cause of the pathology, since as the virus or bacteria are destroyed, the symptoms of the disease will decrease by themselves. An acute intestinal infection is most often caused by viruses and bacteria. To combat them use:

  • intestinal antiseptics
  • bacteriophages
  • antibiotics
  • immunoglobulins.

After the condition of the child is normalized, the doctor recommends probiotics that restore the intestinal microflora after infection, as well as a special diet that does not burden the digestive system during its recovery.

Indications for hospitalization

OCI in children mostly requires hospitalization of the patient. At home, only viral infections that are not accompanied are treated:

  • pronounced clinical picture,
  • neurological disorders
  • dehydration.

In other cases, the child goes to the infectious diseases department of the hospital.

An intestinal infection of bacterial origin is treated faster and more successfully in a hospital setting, where it is easier to remove intoxication than at home.

Therapy lasts on average about 10 days, after which the child can spend several more days on the sick leave at home to fully recover in the rehabilitation period.

What causes fecal incontinence in children and how to deal with it?

Many parents know firsthand about such a delicate problem as fecal incontinence in children. Up to 3 years, this happens in many kids. The child can not resist in a dream, and during wakefulness. The cause of the phenomenon may be a strong fright or the child simply plays up and does not respond to urges. If the baby is already more than 3 years old and he has long learned to use the potty, and the problem regularly reminds himself, then you should pay attention to this and consult a pediatrician or psychologist. Most doctors are not inclined to attribute childhood incontinence to disease, but there is another opinion.

  • 1 Problem summary
  • 2 Reasons for pathology
  • 3 What should be the treatment?

1 Problem summary

Fecal incontinence can be explained by congenital organ pathology, various lesions of the brain and spinal cord. However, it is often found in practically healthy children. This is the so-called functional encopresis.

During the bowel movement, some sections of the cerebral hemispheres are involved, to which impulses are transmitted from the filled rectum along the conducting paths of the spinal cord. These impulses are formed in the nerve endings of the peripheral nervous system. The act of defecation itself is carried out with the help of tension of the abdominal muscles and muscles of the lower intestines. The accumulated feces press on the walls of the rectum and on the nerve endings located in it. In this case, electrical impulses arise that go to the cerebral cortex. And then they are transmitted through the spinal canals to the external sphincter and sore muscles. Thus, volitional suppression of the urge to empty the bowel occurs.

This mechanism begins to form in early childhood. This conditioned reflex is formed under the influence of the environment and depends on the characteristics of the children's psyche. The body gradually gets used to react to certain signals, whether it is time of day, certain sounds or the appearance of the toilet room.

However, in some cases, for various reasons, this process in the child begins to go wrong. Of course, this is very frustrating for both the child and the parents. Some mothers and fathers believe that the baby simply does not want to control himself, while others generally think that he does it consciously and punish the baby. This behavior only exacerbates the problem and leads to untimely treatment by a doctor. Violation of the links of the neural chain, ensuring the functioning of the formed conditioned reflex arc, leads to fecal incontinence.

2 Reasons for pathology

Distinguish between true and false encopresis. In the first case, the perception of the urge to defecate and the control exercised by the central nervous system over the arbitrary opening of the anal sphincters are impaired. The most common cause of true encopresis is the transfer of strong negative emotions by a child. It could be:

  • inappropriate behavior of parents in relation to their baby,
  • pressure often experienced by a child at school or kindergarten,
  • constant feeling of fear
  • strong feelings for any reason.

Often, an unhealthy psychological situation is created in the family of such children, parents quarrel or are divorced, too little time is devoted to raising a child. True encopresis in most cases is accompanied by astheno-neurotic syndrome in children. In addition, the development of pathology can provoke:

  • maternal anemia and fetal hypoxia resulting from it,
  • toxicosis,
  • risk of miscarriage,
  • birth trauma
  • обвитие пуповины при рождении и (опять же) асфиксия,
  • рождение посредством кесарева сечения.

Запоры у детей являются основной причиной возникновения ложного (парадоксального) недержания кала. A frequent reason for this encopresis is the child's frequent restraint of the urge to defecate, which occurs in different situations. For example, the baby wanted to use the toilet on the street, and he was in no hurry to go home. A common cause of suppression is the inconvenience a child experiences during bowel movements. It can be both physical (uncomfortable pot or toilet), and psychological (crowded public toilet at school or kindergarten).

Of the physiological causes of true encopresis, pain experienced by a child during bowel movement can be called. This is possible with a crack on the skin or mucous membrane of the sphincter, various inflammatory processes of the rectum and anus, such as cryptitis or papillitis. In all these cases, there is a deliberate suppression of the urge to defecate, which leads to the accumulation of feces in the intestine, stretching the walls of the rectum. If this situation occurs often, then the receptors located in the walls of the organ lose their sensitivity. At the same time, the feeling of urge decreases and the control of the process by the brain is weakened. Eruption of feces occurs spontaneously. In such cases, they speak of a psychogenic encopresis.

Intestinal infections carried by a child during infancy can also lead to degenerative changes in the nerve receptors of the rectum. Due to the disease, the sensitivity threshold of nerve endings in the sphincter decreases, therefore, when the rectum is full, it opens before the urge to defecate.

In individual cases, fecal incontinence can occur with regular, deliberate bowel movements during increased physical exertion or with excessive mental stress. Sometimes calo-anointing occurs for no apparent reason.

Symptoms and the development of the disease depend on the causes that provoked its occurrence, the degree of changes in the autonomic and central nervous system. If the child is not promptly assisted in a timely manner, controlled bowel movements are becoming less frequent, psychological problems are aggravated, and physiological changes become persistent.

3 What should be the treatment?

In children, encopresis treatment includes a whole range of measures, the composition of which is determined by the cause of the disease. First of all, favorable psychological factors are created. A calm, friendly atmosphere, the absence of conflicts in the family will help eliminate the effect of the traumatic psychological factor. The child must be convinced that he can get rid of this problem. You need to try to organize a convenient mode of the day. Psychological work must also be done with parents.

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It is necessary to start treating with procedures to cleanse the colon of accumulated feces. Enema with heated saline solution is done twice a day in the morning and in the evening at the same time. To restore the reflex, they put training enemas.

To normalize the reflex to defecation, it is recommended to carry out training procedures (that is, it is proposed to keep the injected fluid for a short time). It is also recommended to do special physical exercises aimed at increasing the tone of the sphincter.

Diet matters more. It should include laxative elements and be easily digested. The basis of nutrition should be fruit and vegetable salads with vegetable oil: beetroot, carrot, cabbage. Sour-milk products are very useful. Fixing and indigestible foods should be excluded from the diet: pasta, rice dishes, semolina. Dried fruits raisins, dried apricots, prunes will not only help to remove feces from the body, but also replenish it with necessary vitamins and minerals.

The complex treatment of encopresis should include drugs that normalize the metabolic processes of the cerebral cortex and restore the intestinal microflora. If necessary, choleretic and hepatoprotective agents are prescribed. To neutralize toxins, activated carbon, Lactofiltrum, etc. are recommended.

One of the main treatments for encopresis is endorectal electrical stimulation. This method consists in restoring the normal reaction of nerve endings by stimulating them with low-voltage electric discharges. Of the recipes of traditional medicine, sedative fees can be used. Success in treatment will be ensured by patience, perseverance and a competent psychological approach to the child.

Belching with rotten eggs in a child: causes, symptoms and treatment

Belching or aerophagy (from the English. "Swallowing air") - the release of air accumulated in the digestive system.

Excess gases that enter the body are released through the mouth, and if this happens occasionally and painlessly for the child, then parents can remain calm, the phenomenon is not a manifestation of the disease. But, if a child burps frequently, has a specific smell of rotten eggs, then in this case it is necessary to look for the causes of its occurrence and methods of healing.

Causes of burping rotten eggs

Many parents have a question: why does belching with rotten eggs appear in a child? Putrid odors during belching indicate, as a rule, the process of decay caused by a violation of the secretion of enzymes needed to break down food and weakened motility of the stomach. With poor digestion of products, stagnant and putrefactive processes begin, as a result of which hydrogen sulfide is released from sulfur-containing protein compounds. The main reasons for the appearance of belching with the smell of rotten eggs:

    Causes of burping rotten eggs in a child

Among the first causes of regurgitation is malnutrition. It should be noted that the digestive system in children differs primarily underdevelopment. Therefore, the stomach in a child 2 years old and younger cannot absorb fatty and heavy foods. As a result, stagnant processes and fermentation begin in the body. Such changes cause a symptom such as belching with rotten eggs.

  • Air in the process of consuming food.
  • Intolerance to products. If a one-year-old child has a symptom such as belching with rotten eggs, then this indicates lactose deficiency. With this diagnosis, the baby is worried about pain in the abdomen, colic, the child is not gaining weight well. To solve this problem, the baby is switched to lactose-free mixtures or drugs with missing enzymes are prescribed.
  • Binge eating.
  • Active games after the meal.
  • Unbalanced diet.
  • Squeezing clothes.
  • Psycho-emotional stress during the meal.
  • Spitting up and loose stools in children at the age of two years can be triggered by both physiological and psychological disorders.
  • Belching with a rotten egg may indicate intoxication.
  • Symptoms of burping rotten eggs

    Symptoms of burping rotten eggs in children

    The appearance of belching with a specific smell in babies at the age of 3 years is most often due to impaired functioning of the body. If a symptom such as regurgitation occurs due to inaccuracies in nutrition, then special treatment is not required. It should be noted that up to 1 year in children after a meal quite often there is regurgitation with an annoying vomiting odor. Such a manifestation means that air bubbles come out after feeding, and with them food particles get into the oral cavity.

    To eliminate such manifestations, first of all, the baby should be fed in a peaceful environment, while controlling the correct capture of the nipple in the guards process. After feeding the baby, it is recommended to hold it a little in a vertical position (column), and then lay it on a barrel. If such measures did not help eliminate the unpleasant symptom, then you should go to a specialist.

    With normal acidity, the food lump is digested well, therefore, putrefactive processes do not occur. Digestion is disturbed due to disruptions in the digestive tract, consumption of spicy, salty and greasy foods, excessive consumption of foods, and increased stress.

    Possible pathologies and diagnosis of the disease

    Many parents are interested in the manifestation of what disease a fetid belch may be. It should be noted that ongoing aerophagy over a long time indicates serious modifications in the child's body. This may be a violation of motility or even atrophy of the mucous membranes. Vomiting with a specific smell means the formation of dysbiosis, that is, an upset of microflora in the intestine. With dysbiosis, regurgitation is accompanied by an upset stomach, flatulence. If at the same time signs such as nausea, general malaise and temperature appear, then you should check the small intestine for granulomatous enterocolitis, otherwise it is called Crohn's disease.

    Diagnosis of burping rotten eggs in children

    A symptom such as regurgitation with a rotten odor is characteristic of gluten enteropathy. This is a rare hereditary disease, due to which the body does not absorb the protein found in cereals and cereals. The most common cause of belching is considered to be biliary dyskinesia. Such a pathology in children occurs due to the age-related state of internal organs or functional disorders that interfere with the normal outflow of bile. At the same time, bile is thrown into the stomach. Pain appears in the right side, nausea, vomiting, burning sensation, the general condition of the child worsens.

    Belching with rotten eggs and diarrhea indicates food poisoning, which occurs due to the ingestion of poor-quality food. The disease is caused by various microbes or toxins. Characteristic for poisoning are signs such as diarrhea, headache, fever, vomiting, and sometimes stomach pain. If a stinking belch with the smell of eggs that have begun to rot and a loose stool persists for a long time, then you should not tighten it with a visit to a specialist.

    Belching with the smell of rotten eggs indicates a malfunction in the digestive tract. The main purpose of the diagnosis is to determine the factor that provoked this symptom. Parents should know exactly when the first symptoms occurred, with what frequency they recur and what their baby ate the previous three days. The diagnosis is determined by the doctor on the basis of analyzes of feces, urine, blood, bile. If necessary, the doctor prescribes an additional examination, such as ultrasound, gastroscopy and endoscopy. Based on the description of the disease by the parents of the examination and tests, the doctor makes a diagnosis and prescribes treatment.

    Methods for treating burping rotten eggs

    Treatment of belching with rotten eggs in a child

    To cure burping spoiled eggs, the doctor must accurately establish the causes of its occurrence. In each case, the treatment will be personalized and aimed at eliminating the root causes of the occurrence and avoiding the bad consequences for the child's body. For all ailments of the gastrointestinal tract, along with traditional medicine, it is imperative to follow a diet. Treatment is hampered by the fact that many drugs are contraindicated for use in childhood. Before prescribing treatment, the child must undergo an examination, on the basis of which the disease will be treated. Depending on the root cause that provokes fetid belching, one way or another will be chosen:

    • If the occurrence of unpleasant symptoms is caused by infectious ailments, then in this case the treatment is based on antibiotics.
    • With functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, prokinetics are prescribed.
    • With peptic ulcers, it is necessary to treat a child with antibiotics, antacids and prokinetics.

    Many parents have a natural question, what to do if therapeutic treatment has not brought the desired effect. In this case, more drastic measures are recommended. Surgery can be performed if the disorder is the basis for the occurrence of gastrointestinal tract ailments. As a rule, this kind of intervention is prescribed for congenital pathologies.

    Treatment with folk remedies

    The benefits of goat milk for burping rotten eggs

    Treatment of ailments in childhood is a rather complicated process, since most drugs have many contraindications. You can try to get rid of unpleasant symptoms with the help of traditional medicine. But it should be remembered that folk methods of healing are not a full-blown alternative to traditional medicine, therefore, they can be used in the form of additional methods. There are quite a few recipes for eliminating belching with an unpleasant odor in a child. Popular recipes:

    1. For 2-3 months daily after a meal you need to drink 1 tbsp. goat milk.
    2. ½ tbsp It is recommended that carrot and potato juice be drunk on an empty stomach every day until the symptoms are completely relieved.

    There are many popular methods based on natural ingredients. But before making experiments, especially on the children's body, it is necessary to consult a specialist.

    Important! When belching with an unpleasant odor occurs, you should not immediately sound the alarm. First of all, it is necessary to analyze the reason that provoked the occurrence of this symptom and only after that go into active action. Since the most common cause of an unpleasant symptom in a baby at an early age is malnutrition and insufficiency of the development of the digestive tract.

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