Useful Tips

Electric fences


Today, correct and effective grazing of animals can be carried out without the participation of people. To do this, there is a device called electroshepherd.

With minimal human effort, livestock will be provided with food on a site limited by this design.

The number of grazing personnel decreases, as does the cost of labor. This organization of productivity is possible when using a special hedge.

Control over the movement of animals using this device is no longer required. It is applicable for other purposes. It is quite possible to build a fence with your own hands.

What is an electric shepherd?

Electric fenceprotects grazing animals from encroachments from the outside and limits their movement beyond the limits of the structure, so that the neighborhood will also be safe.

The device is a generator that transmits current through the wire. Sufficient stress repels cattle from the fence. At the same time, wild animals will not be able to attack a sheep or a cow.

Electric Fences: Pros and Cons

An electric fence is a fence of alternating wires through which current flows. The wire can be made of copper, aluminum, steel or another metal: the main condition is good electrical conductivity and a diameter of at least 1 mm.

The current strength in the electric fence is designed only for a painful blow, which will cause the animal or person to abandon plans to approach the hedge.

Electric fence for animals

An electric fence is the cheapest and easiest way to protect your animals and allow them to move freely around the site without leaving it. And at the same time, do not allow other animals or intruders to enter private territory.

The advantages of electric fence

  • Speed ​​and ease of installation
  • Low price
  • Excellent light transmission
  • Easy repair and easy maintenance
  • Site security
  • The lightness of the material does not require the construction of a foundation for the fence.

Choosing an electric fence as a site fence, it is worthwhile to clearly determine the goal pursued. If the main objective is to preserve livestock on the territory, the voltage in the network should be strong enough to make the herd avoid the fence.

Scheme of the device and installation of the electric fence

Although the electric fence is undemanding for additional maintenance, it must be periodically checked and the voltage level checked. If someone suffers from high voltage, the owner will be liable for the damage caused by the electric fence. On such a fence, warning signs are required on all sides. During a thunderstorm, the electrical fence must be disconnected and grounded. Although modern firms offer fences with guarantee protection against lightning.

Electric fence installation

Drawing for installing poles for electric fence

  • Voltmeter,
  • Insulators for electric fences,
  • Distribution block with solar panels, battery or mains,
  • Wire and ground terminal,
  • Grounding rods
  • Sledgehammer,
  • Wire fence
  • Steel or wooden poles
  • Twine,
  • Shovel,
  • Corner brackets
  • Jumper caliber 10-14.
Back to the table of contents

Planning and preparation

  1. Determination of the size and height of the fence. You also need to decide how many rows of wire will be needed, what distance will be between the posts and make preliminary calculations.
  2. Acquisition of angle brackets. At the corners, an electric fence is attached to the corner bracket. Over six rows of wire will require double brackets.
  3. Wooden or steel racks. Steel poles are easily installed by simple driving into the ground. Wooden fence posts are not subject to corrosion and are durable, although they can sink into the soil over time.
  4. Choose a charger. If you select mains power, the fence will not work during a power outage. To maintain the fence in continuous operation, you need a battery. A practical and functional solution will be solar panels, if there is enough sunlight in this region.
  5. Wire for electric fence. Instead of wire and electrical wires, you can use a special tape, which is more visible and not as dangerous as wiring.

Installation of electric fence

  1. Distribution block installation. The place for the distribution block must be protected from moisture and be in close proximity to the electrical outlet. It is good to place it under a canopy, in a garage, place it on a wall or post. Until the fence is installed, the charger cannot be turned on.
  2. Installation of ground rods. A rod of copper or steel is buried in the ground next to the power supply. At least 5 cm of the rod is left above the ground, the grounding pole itself should be about two meters. The ground wire is connected to the distribution block and the terminal using clamps. Observing a distance of 3-6 m, establish another rod.
  3. Installation of support posts. Using a rope, the perimeter of the fence is marked and poles can be installed. The optimal distance between the posts is 2 m, and the depth of immersion in the ground is about 1.2 m.
  4. Mounting brackets on corners and gates. At the corners, the voltage from the tensioned wire is the strongest, so angular brackets are installed. To do this, in a vertical pillar of the fence, an upright is installed at an angle, which becomes a support for the main pillar.
  5. Distribution of insulators on support poles. The type of insulators will depend on the selected wire. Follow the instructions that are usually attached to such products.
  6. Wire pulling. Distribution of wires on poles. Use special clamps, and do not wrap the wires around the pole. The optimal distance between the wires is 6–10 cm, which will not allow smaller animals to enter the territory. The upper wire is installed at the level of the shoulder of the animal, which must be kept on the site.

Wiring and connecting wires to the electric fence

Useful Tips and Warnings

  • Do not use barbed wire for an electric fence,
  • You can’t stand close to the hedge while energized during a thunderstorm,
  • Use warning signs that the hedge is live,
  • At least twice a year, the fence should be checked with a voltmeter.
Back to the table of contents

Invisible fence

Another kind of electric fence is the invisible fence of the electric shepherd. It is used to keep pets - dogs and cats in a certain area.

An invisible fence is a good solution that allows the pet to actively move, and not sit, for example, on a chain, and at the same time not go beyond its territory. Such fences are quite widely represented on the market, but the principles of work are basically the same. An invisible fence is supplied with a kit, which includes a collar and a wire that must be buried along the border of the site.

Animals quickly enough understand that it is impossible to cross the designated boundaries. A sound signal built into the collar will tell you about the approach of the invisible fence.

So, the pet develops a conditioned reflex, and he does not want to leave the safe territory.
Making an invisible fence is very simple, the electric fence is fully equipped and contains detailed installation instructions.

The main stages of the installation of an invisible fence:

  1. The sensor is located in a dry place protected from precipitation.
  2. By connecting the sensor to the network, the required distance is set.
  3. Checking the operation of the system. With the collar you need to go around the perimeter and check the selected area, focusing on the sound signal emitted by the collar.
  4. If required, the distance is adjusted and the perimeter is checked again.
  5. Training a pet for an invisible fence. Significant training flags are set along the border of the invisible fence so that the animal is guided in new boundaries. After the pet learns to respond to an audible warning, the flags can be removed.

Why do we need an electric shepherd?

For better control of animals, it is necessary to fence pastures with a solid fence, but this causes some difficulties. The supply of grass is depleted, and constantly moving the fence causes inconvenience (both financial and physical). With regard to fencing, everything is not so simple, for a start it is necessary to draw up land, and this is not cheap and takes a lot of time. Another thought immediately comes to mind - to hire a shepherd. But again, it must be a proven and reliable person, and again, financial costs await you. In this case, an electric shepherd comes to the rescue.

This is a very simple and convenient device to use, preventing the escape of cows. It can be used for any cattle. In its work, the electric shepherd is characterized by accessibility and ease of control.

An electric fence is a wire structure enclosed around the perimeter of a given territory; an electric current is supplied from the generator to each part. When the animal comes into contact with a metal fence, a small discharge occurs, which is not dangerous for cattle, but unpleasant in sensation.

Such a device is suitable for use in private farming complexes and for large livestock farms.

What is the device for and how is it arranged?

For what purposes is electric shepherd used:

  • A mobile fence allows to graze large, medium animals and a bird without the participation of people.
  • Pets move inside the plot freely, and not on a leash.
  • An electric wire protects against predators.
  • The device is also applicable for fencing crops, dangerous areas on the landscape.

A homemade electric shepherd includes several elements, the main of which is a transformer. The layers of the core of its winding are separated by cardboard to increase the gap.

For winding, a PEV wire of 0.18 is used. The necessary values ​​of the electric capacitance are obtained using special capacitors, calculated for a voltage of a specific level.

The wire without insulation is fixed on insulators mounted on supports made of metal, plastic or wood.

The pulse source is powered by a voltage of 220 volts.

The design consists of:

  • grounding in the form of a pole or wire,
  • lightning conductor preventing the power source from failing during a thunderstorm,
  • conductors of the appropriate type, insulators,
  • voltage generator.

Installation of the entire fence does not require the help of specialists. When buying a ready-made set, you need to separately purchase support columns.

What you need to create yourself

The device is a simple design that can be done independently. A self-made electroshepherd will cost much less than professional equipment.

The manufacture of such a pen, even for cattle (cattle) in the simplest case, requires a fence from only one line of wire.

The pillars are made of metal or wood, pointed at one end and threaded from the other. Electric cables are extended up to 200 m long.

Insulators are screwed onto the thread. The columns should have a length from meter to 120 cm, they are placed at a distance of approximately 10 m from one another.

If they are metal, installation is simplified. A crossbeam is welded to the pointed end to help establish the structure.

The generator is purchased or made independently, for which the following elements are taken:

  • a special coil, for example, from a car,
  • battery,
  • transformer,
  • multiple transistors.

The electric shepherd scheme is implemented on a small plate hidden in a wooden box.

Important! Do not reduce the resistance of the converter by increasing the voltage to obtain a greater effect from the design. After all, the current passing through the cable will not be harmless to animals and people.

Electric shepherd scheme

The design, as well as the circuit of this device, are simple. The main part consists of a wire through which current is transmitted from the source - the ignition coil.

It is also a voltage to pulse converter that must be short so as not to be harmful when transmitting at a specific frequency. Three 555 timers will also be required.

It is not difficult to make a generator. A ready-made transistor is used that performs the function of transmitting pulses. The ignition coil used in the electric shepherd circuit has two functions.

This is the generation of voltage and its conversion into pulses that are transmitted to the fence (unlike a car, where they go to candles).

The next (after creating the source) stage is the assembly of the structure, including poles and mesh (wire). And after that the fence is connected to the generator.

Important! You should choose a scheme with short pulses, since a long and powerful one can lead to the fact that the animal will not be able to leave the site of damage. Unpredictability in behavior occurs due to muscle spasm. By then, another shock will come, which can kill.

Selection of characteristics at the output of the current device is done for each variety of pets. Therefore, you should read the publications of various authors on the Internet or other sources.

There are several schemes to choose from with wavelength parameters for animals of different sizes. But this characteristic can be adjusted on their own if there are more thorough radio amateur skills.

One of the schemes for cattle is shown below:

It is quite simplistic.

Applied here:

  • diodes (VD1, VD3) - KD226V and (VD4) - from 10 kV,
  • resistance - 1 W,
  • capacitors - 400 V,
  • dynistor (VD2) - KN102I,
  • thyristor (T1) - KU202N,
  • coil.

Materials for the shepherd

When purchasing materials for hedges, they primarily focus on the distance between the supports - about 10 m. The wire should be coated with anticorrosion so that it can be used longer.

When purchasing materials for hedges, they primarily focus on the distance between the supports - about 10 m

Doing the fence with your own hands, it is better to take galvanized, the diameter is within 2 mm. Porcelain or ceramic insulators will also be required.

They are not afraid of moisture, natural phenomena. Although you can use ordinary plastic bottles, cut to size.

Effective Fence Conditions

For the functioning of the electric shepherd, there are a number of conditions:

  • A perimeter-mounted fence is created from metal wire or mesh. The latter cannot touch the ground.
  • Support poles must withstand high voltage.
  • The source of high voltage pulses is necessarily grounded.

Important! The fence should scare away the animal, and not harm.

DIY installation

To install, you first need to determine the area of ​​the site. Support columns can be located at a distance of no more than 10 m from each other. The perimeter is divided into this interval.

It turns out the required number of columns. Each of them must be equipped with an insulator to which the wire is attached. A simple option is a plastic bottle without a bottom, worn on a pole. Around the throat it is convenient to make turns of wire.

It is desirable to provide the wire with bright ribbons for greater visibility. People are warned by the inscription. Using a ready-made generator or making it from an ignition coil and three 555 timers, you need to ground the source.

To do this, take one or more metal rods of 120 cm, deepen into the ground per meter. At the end of installation, the structure is divided into sections, complemented by a gate.

Advantages and disadvantages of the fence

The principle of operation of the shepherd is as follows: the animal, in contact with the wire, senses an electric discharge of up to 3 mA and further fears approaching the fence at a close distance, colliding with it.

Such current power does not harm health, but only forces you to experience unpleasant sensations.

The generator of the installation is powered by a power grid or solar battery with a capacity of 12 volts or more. But the latter case is less effective. The electric shepherd is a practical and convenient device.

Its main advantages:

  • Easy to install, mobility (can be moved to another place).
  • Grazing is carried out without the participation of people, the pen works autonomously.
  • Simplicity of construction.
  • Low cost.
  • Limiting animal grazing in a particular area.
  • The ability to use to protect plant crops from freely walking cattle.

The disadvantages of the device:

  • The need for basic knowledge of the basics of electrics in self-assembly.
  • High power consumption.
  • Fast battery wear.