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Selected document to view Similarities and differences between land and freshwater turtles.doc
Department of Education of the Administration of Omsk
Budget educational institution
additional education of the city of Omsk
"Center for Continuing Education of Children" Eureka
City competition of research works and projects
elementary school students “I am a researcher”
Similarities and differences between land and freshwater turtles
Chinegin Ilya Dmitrievich
student of grade 2-5
BOU of Omsk "Secondary school No. 118"
Oleinik Maria Nikolaevna
primary school teacher
BOU of Omsk "Secondary school No. 118"
Chinegina Tatyana Vladimirovna,
Where did turtles come from? four
Sensory organs of turtles 5
Feeding Turtles 6
Breeding turtles 8
Appendix 1 13
Appendix 2 14
Appendix 3 15
Appendix 4 16
I like animals a lot. Since childhood, I dreamed of some kind of pet.
Caring for animals gives us joy, vivid emotions. In addition, new communication skills are acquired.
My dream came true - my parents gave me a land turtle. She was small. I did not know how to handle and care for her. Having studied literature, I learned a lot about new and interesting about my turtle. I found out that there are not only land turtles, but also freshwater turtles.
Later I found out that a red-eared turtle lives at my friend’s house. I became interested in comparing them, how they are similar and how they differ.
I began to collect information and began my research. I want to share the results with you.
Objective: compare land and freshwater turtles
Find out how turtles appeared, where they live and how they breed,
To study and compare the conditions of land and freshwater turtles at home,
Learn to determine the type, gender and age of animals,
Find out how and how to feed turtles.
Land turtle Syoma,
Freshwater Red-eared Turtle Cake.
The study of literature and Internet sources.
Hypothesis: I believe that land and freshwater turtles, although they are terrestrial turtles, will vary greatly in many ways. By examining and comparing, I will reveal similarities and differences in the conditions of their maintenance, nutrition and appearance.
Where did turtles come from?
I have studied many magazines and encyclopedias about turtles. With the help of adults, I found information about them on the Internet. I watched with interest TV shows, which tells about these animals.
Turtles are one of the few ancient inhabitants of the Earth that have survived to this day. Turtles are often called living fossils. This means that the turtles that live today have not changed much and are very similar to those that lived 200 million years ago. In ancient times, the shell of turtles was called the skull, hence the name turtle. Turtles are very different from other animals. All turtles breathe lightly and have shells consisting of two parts: the outer, or upper, and lower. Through the holes between these two halves, the turtle can stick out its head with its neck, tail and paws. The carapace serves as protection against external conditions and from enemies.
Scientists say turtles evolved from primitive reptiles - cotylosaurs. It is worth noting that these animals, like turtles, had a tortoise-type carapace and beak. However, unlike modern turtles, they did not have the ability to draw their heads and limbs into the shell.
Various species of turtles inhabit most of the land and waters of the tropical and temperate zones. 
There are more than 250 species of turtles on Earth, differing in size, shell shape, mode of existence, habitat.
All of them are divided into land and sea.
Land turtles are divided into land and freshwater.
Outwardly, they are similar. They have a hard outer shell, scaly skin and a keratinized nose.
Due to different living conditions, turtles living on land and in water differ from each other in many ways.
Sea turtles dive very well and swim quickly, and they are chosen on land mainly for laying eggs. Their limbs are fin-shaped, so on land they move slowly and awkwardly. But land turtles do not know how to swim, they live in arid areas. They have short, clawed legs. They are known for their slowness. Freshwater turtles are quite fast both on land and in water. They have swimming membranes between their fingers.
In size, sea turtles are significantly superior to land and freshwater. The largest specimens reach a mass of more than 900 kg, and their carapace is 2.5 m long. Freshwater turtles can reach 2 m and land turtles up to 180 cm.
Between themselves, freshwater, land and sea turtles can not mate.
The most common type of tortoise is the land with the Central Asian tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii), named after the American biologist Thomas Horsfield. It can be found in clay and sand deserts with vegetation, in river valleys. The Central Asian tortoise is widespread in Northern and Eastern Iran, Afghanistan, North-West India and Northern Pakistan, as well as in the southern regions of Kazakhstan and in the deserts of Central Asia.
Sensory organs of turtles
Turtles see perfectly. They are able to see the enemy at a considerable distance. In addition, they have "color" vision (land turtles distinguish bright petals of plants).
In contrast to vision, hearing in turtles is poorly developed, in terrestrial individuals the eardrum is thick, and in marine ones it is closed by thickened skin. But this does not mean that they do not hear at all.
Yes, compared to lizards and crocodiles, turtles are almost deaf. But they feel the same vibrations of the soil! Apparently, only low-frequency sounds (up to 2000 hertz) are perceived.
Most likely, sounds do not play a big role in the life of turtles. Unless in the mating season, some species (especially terrestrial) make sounds, and even roar.
Possessing a delicate taste, smell and touch (they even feel a touch on the shell, and instantly), the turtles developed a sense of direction, or “compass feeling”.
In nature, turtles themselves choose the food suitable for them, which is available in the parts where they live. Their diet includes both plant and animal foods in different proportions, as well as minerals. At home, the turtle must provide its owner with proper nutrition.
Turtles by type of food are divided into 3 groups, listed below. Each group corresponds to a certain ratio of plant and animal food that needs to be given. Continuous feeding of turtles with food unsuitable for this type is fraught with problems with digestion, metabolism and internal organs. Turtles also need to be given weekly vitamins and calcium.
PREVIOUS (70-90% of animal food, 10-30% of plant food)
Almost all completely aquatic and all young aquatic species belong to predatory turtles: trionics, young red-eared, marsh, cayman, musky, etc. With age, some of them become omnivores.
Predatory turtles are fed with feed insects, mollusks, fish, seafood, dry food.
Omnivores are some adult aquatic turtles and some secondary terrestrial turtles: adult red-eared, adult marsh, spiny turtles, box turtles, Spengler turtles, etc. The diet of omnivorous turtles is 1/2 animal food (list above) and 1/2 plant food (list below). Aquatic turtles are given fish and seafood as animal food, and terrestrial mice. Aquatic plants give water turtles, terrestrial plants and sometimes vegetables give land.
Land turtles are Central Asian, Egyptian, radiant, star-shaped, Greek, flat, spider, etc.
5% of animal food means that once a month turtles can be given a snail, mouse or immobilized food insects, but only to species whose description says that they can sometimes be given animal food.
Herbivorous turtles are fed with natural, dried or frozen (depending on the season) weed or house plants from the edible list. Once a week they can be given some vegetables and very few fruits (only to those species that eat fruits in nature). Once a week or less, you can give a suitable dry food for land turtles.
Turtles are dioecious. They reach puberty by an average of 10 years.
Reproduction in all turtles occurs the same way. After mating (most often on land), the female lays eggs in a funnel-shaped pit (I must say that all types of turtles lay eggs only on the shore), which she digs with her hind legs, using water from the anal bubbles to soften the soil. Then the masonry is filled up and rammed from above by plastron impacts.
The eggs are spherical or elliptical, white or yellowish, with a hard calcareous shell (in sea and some bokochnoi turtles they are covered with a soft leathery shell). Their number can be from several to hundreds. Many turtles have several clutches per season.
After 3-4 months, the turtles begin to “hatch”. They carry a yolk sac on their abdomen (it will be pulled in 2-4 days) and can “hibernate” up to six months until next spring.
But turtles grow all their lives, only growth is gradually slowing down. And their longevity can be envied! The average turtle lives up to 130 years! The reason for this longevity, presumably, lies in the protection from enemies and the ability to live in different conditions.
In my work, I decided to compare two types of turtles. The first thing I did determined their appearance . Is it true that a land Asian tortoise lives in my house, and my friend has a freshwater, red-eared tortoise.
After a careful examination of the turtles, I made a comparison table. (Annex 1)
Conclusion: The type of turtles is determined correctly.
Determining the sex and age of the turtle
Sex in land turtles can be determined only by the age of 6-8 years. The main difference between a female and a male is the length and shape of the tail. In the male, the tail is narrower and longer, and in the female, short. Plastron (the abdominal surface of the shell) in males is slightly concave, which allows the male to stay on the female during mating; in females, the concavity of the plastron is not observed or not expressed.
The red-eared turtle also has a sign of gender difference - the length and shape of the tail. In addition, in the male freshwater turtle, the claws on the forelimbs are significantly longer than in the female.
The most interesting for me was the determination of sex in our turtles.
The red-eared tortoise Tortik has a long tail, the cloaca is significantly removed from the surface of the shell, as well as long claws on the forelimbs. Therefore, he is a male. The land turtle Syoma has a short tail, the concavity of the plastron is not observed. We can conclude that this is a female.
The age of the turtle is determined by the rings on the shell. Depending on the conditions of keeping and feeding, on average 2-3 rings are added per year. Also, the approximate age of the animal can be calculated by the length of the shell and weight.
To determine the age, I made a measurement of body length and weighing pets. He used the tables of parameters for turtles. (Appendix 2)
The length of the red-eared turtle was 14 cm, weight 344 g, which corresponds to the age of 4 years.
The length of the tortoise was 10 cm, weight - 137 g, which corresponds to the age of 3 years.
I decided to think about what else these types of turtles are similar and different, and studied in the literature breeding issue .
All turtles breed eggs. Land tortoise lays 2-6 eggs at a time, and freshwater 6-10 eggs. Females dig eggs deep in the sand. After 60-65 days, baby tortoises are born, and after 100-150 days freshwater turtles are born.
Keeping turtles at home
The maintenance of land and freshwater turtles at home differs in the place of detention, filler, temperature, nutrition, the ability to hibernate.
Comparative table of conditions for land and freshwater turtles. (Appendix 3)
Eating turtles at home
The land tortoise of Central Asia is a species that feeds exclusively on plant foods. In nature, the animal’s menu includes plant seedlings, gourds, and fruits of plants. At home, the turtle is fed vegetables (pumpkin, zucchini, carrots, cucumber), lettuce, Beijing cabbage, dandelion leaves. For full growth, the turtle needs calcium. His animal receives from plants, as well as from special powders, food additives. A land turtle does not need a drinker. Moisture is taken from food or while bathing.
Syoma's favorite treat is lettuce.
The trachemy tortoise eats in captivity shrimps, mollusks, insects and larvae, fish, pieces of meat and liver. Freshwater turtles also eat sea kale, spinach, lettuce. Suitable for turtles and a mixture based on gelatin or agar-agar (turtle jelly). The source of calcium is feed additives or ground eggshells.
Turtle Tortik loves raw chicken most of all.
Young growing turtles of any kind must be fed daily, and adults once every 2-3 days.
In the Russian language there is such a stable expression "weave like a turtle." I decided to prove that the turtles are not so slow as they are considered. To do this, I put each of the turtles in a low box of shoes and looked at what would happen. The tortoise tortoise Tortik initially sat and looked around, but after five minutes pushing her tail and hind legs jumped over the edge of the box and quickly ran around the room. The land turtle Syoma immediately began to move around the box. Slowly, but overcame the obstacle and climbed over the edge.
Conclusion: Central Asian land turtles are slower than freshwater turtles.
As a result of the experiments and research I was able to achieve my goal. I compared two types of turtles. My hypothesis was confirmed. I found out that my pet really belongs to the land Central Asian turtles and is a female, and my friend has a male fresh-water red-eared turtle. Learned to determine the age of turtles. He also proved that land and freshwater turtles differ not only in appearance, but also in the conditions of detention at home. I learned a lot about these reptile species and developed a memo for beginner tortoise breeders, which I want to share with you.
List of used literature.
1. Lukyanov M. Modern terrarium of its inhabitants. - M.: Citadel Publishing House, 2001
2. A. E. Chegodaev. Land turtles. - M.: OOO "AQUARIUM LTD", K.: GIPPV, 2002
3. Encyclopedia “Do you know?” Reptiles and amphibians. - M .: "Swallowtail",
Origin and some fossil species
|There is an article in Wiktionary "turtle"|
- Russian word "turtle" (as well as Ukrainian tortoise, Belorussian. Charapakha and Slovenian. črepaha) Praslav continues. * čerpaxa, which is formed from * čerpъ "Shard". This word supplanted continuum praslav. * žely preserved in Polish. żółw, Czech želva and Maced. bile and related dr. χέλυς "turtle".
- Latin testudo derived from testa "Brick, tile, clay vessel."