Paraphrasing (retelling) is a good way to provide support for your ideas by retelling important information from a source in your own words. Rephrasing can be a daunting task, as you need to preserve the original basic idea of an argument or point of view without copying a word. If you want to know how to paraphrase the information correctly, you just need to read the original quote, find a way to express ideas from it in your own words and correctly quote the sources. If you want to understand how to retell material correctly, simply follow these simple instructions.
3.4. Rules for paraphrasing and quoting
Rules for the use of other people's information in scientific work
Foreign information in scientific work is usually used in the form of paraphrasing and quoting. Rephrasing and citing is a necessary element of writing student research. Quotations in moderation adorn the text and give the impression of solidity: the author reinforces and illustrates his thoughts with the sayings of authoritative scientists, excerpts from primary sources, etc.
When working with other people's information, it is necessary to distinguish: citation (accurate reduction of copyright words) and paraphrasing (generalization of ideas using your own words).
The work should not be just a repetition of what has already been said by various scholars. Therefore, the author’s own comments on the coursework / thesis to the cited material, his thoughts and ideas must be present.
Quoting and paraphrasing requires certain skills, since you need to correctly link to the cited source. The absence of a link constitutes copyright infringement, and an incorrectly formed link is considered a serious mistake. The ability to correctly quote sources in a proper place, with a sense of proportion, is one of the most necessary skills in scientific work. The correct selection, distribution in the text and design of other people's information largely determines the appearance of the work and the general impression that the teacher (reviewer) has when reading it.
Quoting sources is required in the following cases:
1. When you need to accurately reproduce copyright words.
Example: Shane E. gives the following definition of corporate culture: “Group culture can be defined as a pattern of collective basic ideas acquired by a group when solving problems of adaptation to changes in the external environment and internal integration, the effectiveness of which is sufficient to be considered valuable and conveyed. new members of the group as a correct system of perception and consideration of these problems ”19, c. 32.
When specific facts and statistics are identified by individual authors.
Academic etiquette requires accurate reproduction of quoted text, as the slightest reduction in the quoted exposure can distort the meaning that the author invested in it. Therefore, when quoting, the following rules must be observed:
1. The text of the quotation is enclosed in quotation marks and is given in the grammatical form in which it is given in the source, while preserving the features of the author’s spelling. All punctuation marks within a quotation must exactly reproduce author punctuation.
2. Quoting should be complete, without arbitrary reduction of the cited fragment and without distortion of meaning. In those cases when you are directly interested in only part of the author’s statement, the passage of words, sentences, paragraphs when quoting is allowed, if it does not entail distortion of the entire fragment, and is indicated by an ellipsis, which is placed at the place of the omission. It is placed anywhere in the quote (at the beginning, in the middle, at the end). It is not permitted to arbitrarily abbreviate a citation without designating abbreviations with appropriate signs.
Example: According to L.S. Vygotsky, "... a child of seven years is distinguished above all by the loss of childish immediacy."
3. Each quote should be accompanied by a reference to a source, a bibliographic description of which should be given in accordance with the requirements of bibliographic standards.
Accurate and accurate quotation provides a systematic and thorough indication of the source from which information is taken. It must be included in the list of used literature, and in the text should be given a link indicating the source number, as well as the page where the quote is taken from. In other words, you should document the sources in such a way that there is no question of which words and ideas belong to you and which to other people. This can be done in the following way: at the end of the presented author's material, the serial number of the source according to the list of bibliographies with the page on which the cited material is located is indicated in square brackets.
An example of the design of the source in the list of references:
3. Vygotsky L.S. Collected Works: In 6 vols. T.4. Child Psychology / Ed. D.B. Elkonina. - M .: Pedagogy, 1984. - 432 p.
The text indicates the serial number and page on which the information used is located - 3, p.376.
In modern sources there are many quotes to which the author makes references in his work. A typical mistake of students is a reference to the source where this quote was printed. In such cases, one should not directly indicate the source from which the quote was taken, but the one from which the citation takes place.
The citation is made out as follows: in conclusion of the stated copyright material in square brackets “cit. by ”, followed by the serial number of the source according to the list of bibliographies indicating the page on which the cited material is located.
A.V. Petrovsky points out the illegitimacy of identifying the process of personality formation with the general process of mental development. He writes: “... for each age period, the leading one is not a monopoly of a specific (leading) activity, but an activity-mediated type of relationship that develops in a child with the group most relevant to him during this period” cit. 10, p. 44.
It must be remembered: citation should not be either excessive or insufficient, since both reduce the level of scientific work. Excessive citation (the abundance of citations on each page) gives the impression of the independence of the entire work as a whole, and insufficient citation reduces the scientific value of the work.
Paraphrasing (exposing the thoughts of other authors in their own words) in size (length) is similar to the original material. Paraphrase presents the details of the author’s argumentation and logic, but it is especially important here that the exact author’s words and sentence constructions are not used.
Observations made in the analytical situation clearly show that an increase in the need for love occurs when a particular anxiety presses on the patient, and disappears when he realizes this connection. Since analysis inevitably arouses alarm, the patient tries again and again to cling to the analyst. We can observe, for example, how a patient, being under the pressure of repressed hatred against the analyst, is overwhelmed with anxiety and begins in this situation to seek his friendship and love. I believe that most of what is called a “positive transference” and is interpreted as an initial attachment to a father or mother, is actually a desire to find protection and calm from anxiety. The motto of this behavior: “If you love me, you will not offend me cit. 12, p. 15-16.
Rephrasing in the style of plagiarism
As noted by C. Horney cit. 12, observations in analytical situations show that the need for love comes in a situation where the patient begins to feel anxiety, and disappears when he realizes this connection. Due to the fact that the analysis inevitably feels anxiety, the patient tries to “cling” to the analyst. If the patient undergoes a process of crowding out hatred against the analyst, then he becomes overwhelmed with anxiety and begins to seek the analyst’s friendship and love. Therefore, Horney believes that the “positive transference” and its interpretation as an initial attachment to a father or mother are, in fact, a desire to protect and calm oneself from anxiety.
In this paraphrase, the author follows exactly the source and uses words and structures that very much repeat the original, so such paraphrasing can be considered plagiarism.
C. Horney notes that the “positive transference” in the analytical situation cannot be interpreted as a recreation of primary attachments to one of the parents, as can be seen in classical psychoanalysis. In her opinion, this is just a desire to get rid of the anxiety associated with the analysis situation 12, p. 15-16.
Expressing the thoughts of other authors in your own words gives a significant saving of text. Moreover, one should be extremely accurate in presenting the ideas of the author and correct in assessing the stated. When paraphrasing, as well as when quoting, appropriate links are made to the source from which the information used is taken. The source should be included in the list of used literature, and the link should be given in the text indicating the source number or, if the ideas of several authors are stated, using different sources, the number of sources.
Unlike quoting, when paraphrasing, pages do not need to be specified!
A reference in the case of paraphrasing can be made out in the following way: at the end of the presented copyright material, the serial number of the source (s) is indicated in square brackets according to the list of bibliography in which (which) the material is paraphrased by the author of the course / diploma work. Moreover, the link sign, if the note refers to a single word, should stand directly at that word, but if it refers to a sentence (or group of sentences), then - at the end (see table).
Options for paraphrasing and registration of links in term paper and thesis
A link to the source as a whole is made out in the form of a bibliographic record number, which is placed after the author or the collective of authors is mentioned or a quote from the work, for example:
Rubinstein S.L. noted that a person’s self-image does not always adequately reflect the real picture of reality.
A combined link is also used when it is necessary to indicate the pages of cited works in combination with the common numbers of other sources:
As can be seen from studies 6, C. 4-9, 7, C. 251.
If there is a need to refer to an opinion shared by a number of authors or an argued opinion in several works of the same author, then all serial numbers of sources that are separated by a semicolon should be noted.
Studies of a number of authors 27, 91, 132 found that.
Paraphrasing or citing not according to the original source is carried out if it is not in the library. In such cases, footnotes are given to the work of the author who does it in his work. For example, the text uses a quote by C. Jung, taken from the work of Hall C.S., Lindsay G. Theory of personality. - M .: "KSP +", 1997, - 404 p.
Speaking about the personality structure, K. Jung noted that the collective unconscious “this is the most powerful and influential mental system, and in pathological cases it overlaps the I and the personal unconscious” cit. 25, p. 75.
How to avoid plagiarism?
“Plagiarism is the intentional or unintentional presentation of a text, words, facts or ideas of another author as their own.”
In the academic world, an author will be considered plagiarizing if he:
buys, finds or receives work, which he subsequently draws up as his own,
includes in its own review a passage, an unidentified phrase or idea that literally copied from someone’s work without a designation and indication of the source,
uses literally the same sequence of thoughts and organization of arguments that is in the original source,
does not quote the author’s words,
used more than one paragraph without comment.
Thus, it is necessary to remember that the sources are cautiously treated in terms of quoting and paraphrasing, and that the text of the course or thesis should not be very similar in its use of words or syntactic constructions to the original source.
The anti-plagiarism system is software that passes through itself and analyzes many characters and compares them with existing texts on the Internet. Depending on the amount of presence of such similarities, the program determines the level of uniqueness of the work as a percentage.
Methods that DO NOT work
First you need to figure out what methods you should not use and spend time on them. When they appeared, perhaps they gave the expected result, but the anti-plagiarism system was quickly adapted. Now such methods are not working properly. These include:
- replacing Russian letters with similar Latin spellings,
- replacing the letter “o” with 0 (zero),
- double translation from Russian into English and back using an online translator,
- using screenshots instead of typed text,
- the use of special programs and online services to increase the level of uniqueness,
- Insert hidden text
- use of synonymizers.
Often, these workarounds have long ceased to work. When replacing various letters, the system identifies words such as those written with misspellings. Online translators, like synonymizers, make the text very awkward and poorly readable, and sometimes completely incoherent. So in any case they will have to work on them.
Hidden text also does not help much, because the program usually does not take into account formatting and sees all the characters. And many programs and online services to increase uniqueness use this particular anti-plagiarism bypass system.
Ways to rephrase text correctly
Making a unique text is not so simple, it involves doing titanic work. And almost all of them require time and attention.
- Deep text verification
All information you select must go through a rigorous selection process. This means that you should rewrite everything in a row, you need to be able to highlight the main thing, only what is needed specifically for your work. Do not change only quotes, terms, perhaps some definitions. We write the rest in our own words and rephrase it, i.e. make a quality rewrite!
Any other text can be taken as a basis or idea. But in the future, the topic must be developed using your own thoughts. The more there will be, the more chances the text has to pass a test for uniqueness.
Even borrowing someone’s thought, you need to do it right. For example, you need to start writing it from the end. Thus, your proposal will have a different design, which will allow you to skip his system as unique.
If the information in your source is written in solid text, you can submit it as a list or vice versa. It is advisable to change the style of writing, to add something from yourself.
Order from professionals
This method, of course, is not free, but experienced copywriters can easily provide you with work that will meet all the stated requirements.
7 Ways to Rephrase Text for Anti-Plagiarism
If we turn to the applied side of the issue, redoing the text in order to increase its originality and uniqueness is a process of rewriting the source text in your own words in the manner of free presentation.
From English rewriting, the term rewriting appeared, which means rewriting the text in your own words, used to increase the percentage of originality in the Anti-plagiarism. Rewrite for Anti-Plagiarism involves paraphrasing the text in order to improve its uniqueness to the extent necessary for these purposes.
Paraphrase text for Anti-Plagiarism There are 7 ways:
- Direct paraphrasing of the text - this means the presentation of the text in your own words without changing its essence, content, meaning, meaning, which allows to increase the percentage of originality in the Anti-plagiarism. This method implies that paraphrasing is carried out not by mechanical replacement of words with synonyms, but by meaningful alteration of the text. It should be noted that you need to redo the text for Anti-Plagiarism without adding water, while maintaining the general sense, to avoid absurd sentences, incomplete phrases, fragmentary sentences, while you should try to maintain an approximate volume or increase it slightly.
- Recycling the text by rewriting - means that you need to rewrite the source text in your own words, getting the output more or less new text. The rewrite for Anti-Plagiarism differs from the previous method by a lower level of paraphrasing: synonyms are mainly used, meaningful alteration of the text is used to a much lesser extent. Paraphrasing the text for the Anti-Plagiarism method of rewriting is less effective, since an increase in the percentage of originality may not be so significant.
- Text rewriting using the free exposition method - this means rewriting the text using universal techniques. The basis is used the selection of synonyms and synonymous phrases, which is supplemented by a combination of sentences, you can also “split” a complex sentence into several simpler ones, in addition, the change of speech turns, the change of participial and participial turns, reduction and increase of sentences is widely used. Paraphrasing text for Anti-Plagiarism by this method, on the one hand, is easier than the previous ones, on the other hand, requires a good vocabulary and a lot of luggage of books, articles, magazines, etc.
- Structuring text after pre-processing. This method is used in combination with some other method and assumes that after the original text is re-phrased, it can be transformed from solid text to a different look. For example, an even greater increase in the percentage of originality can be achieved if the voluminous paragraph is presented in the form of a structured list. Naturally, the original paragraph of the text needs to be rephrased for Anti-plagiarism, for example, using the free exposition method. Thus, this method is already much more complicated than previous methods.
- Improving the originality of the text due to the supplemented information. This method is also used in combination with the free exposition method or direct paraphrase of the text. For example, there is text in the form of complex text, with many definitions. You can increase its uniqueness if you conduct a comparative analysis, review of definitions, describe the constituent elements, stages of development, add examples, etc. The results need to be formatted accordingly and the output can be obtained almost completely original material for the Anti-Plagiarism with a significant share of self-modification of the text, which will also increase the value of the work.
- Method for replacing non-unique text. This method is suitable if any passage in the text has an extremely low percentage of originality, while the rest of the text is quite unique - as a result, the resulting statistics spoil. It is necessary to replace non-unique fragments of text with unique material, i.e. you can use any of your own developments, techniques, methods, etc. The method is not very effective, but sometimes quite effective.
- Improving the uniqueness of text with the help of conclusions is a very effective way. In this case, paraphrasing the text is not required for Anti-Plagiarism, the percentage of originality is increased by adding unique text. The meaning of this method is that it is necessary to formulate conclusions and include them in the text - as a result, a rather large amount of text appears in the text, which is 100% unique, respectively, the final percentage of originality will increase significantly.
Paraphrasing text for Anti-Plagiarism, pitfalls and unobvious difficulties
Pitfalls are actually 2:
- firstly, there are still problems with evaluating the originality of digital data - often tables are only evaluated by headings, and the numbers themselves, whatever they are, are marked as borrowed,
- secondly, if there is a unique insertion between two non-unique phrases, then there is a possibility that its system will also consider it non-unique.
These aspects need to be taken into account when paraphrasing the text for Anti-Plagiarism is carried out, however, you can always try to level their influence on the final assessment of originality.
The unobvious difficulties are quite diverse.