- The main materials that are made from a cardboard or fiberglass base by applying binders of organic mixtures (tar, bitumen). Depending on the substance used, the materials can be bitumen, bitumen-polymer and tar, the visual difference of which is visible in the photo. There is also a difference in structure - they can be skinless and integumentary.
- Baseless materials - they include astringent mixtures that undergo first heat treatment with the addition of various fillers, and then roll into the canvas.
- Ruberoid sheets and glassineused from Soviet times to the present day. They make the cheapest roofing, which affects the term of its operation - about 3-5 years, and the installation method - at least in three layers.
- Rubemast - It is an improved version of the roofing material described above and is distinguished by the installation technology - it does not roll out, but is fused to the surface. The service life does not exceed the operation of the predecessor.
- Glass Ruberoid - differs from budgetary coatings by replacing a cardboard base with fiberglass or polyester, not amenable to decay. Refers to modern and practical materials with a service life of up to 15 years.
- Euroruberoid differs in resistance to sharp temperature fluctuations and frosts. It is applied in 2-3 layers, it lasts about 30 years (read: "Euroroofing material - laying technology: installation process").
- Membrane Roll Materials - Modern roofing rolled materials that are easy to install and operate for a very long time. On the market are presented in the form of self-adhesive cloths, which should be laid in warm sunny weather, after removing the film from the adhesive base. The high cost is justified by installation without nails and mastics.
- Names - for example, P - roofing material.
- Type of canvas - P - lining, K - roofing, E - elastic.
- The method of topping used is H - flake mica, M - fine-grained, P - dusty, K - coarse-grained.
- Digital marking by which you can learn about the use of a cardboard base (in grams) per 1 square. m, while the larger the number, the higher the strength of the material.
- mechanically - ordinary nails are used. A lining layer is fastened, on top of which a metal tile or flexible roofing is laid,
- gluing on bituminous mastic for the roof - suitable for 1-3 generations of rolled materials, while such laying is performed with all layers from the lining to the top,
- by gas burner of the roof - suitable for materials applied in an appropriate way.
Base Type Classification
The choice of roll material for a soft roof should begin with an explanation of its basis. They are:
- Baseless. These are materials from recycled rubber (Izol) or bitumen (Brizol). There is a new material based on butyl rubber (Hydrobutyl). They are obtained by rolling crushed raw materials through rolls that form a sheet. Most materials have a thickness of 2 mm. They are used mainly in the lower layers of the roofing pie for waterproofing the base.
Baseless roll materials are mainly used as waterproofing
Ruberoid is made on the basis of building board
There are many different materials based on fiberglass and polyamide.
The best and most durable materials for roll roofing are based on polyester. Their service life is 15-25 years. They are expensive, therefore they are usually used as the top - roofing - coating, and the lower, lining layers, are made of material more cheap, usually based on fiberglass or baseless materials (as a waterproofing coating).
Types of binder
The base of the rolled roofing material is coated on both sides with an astringent protective composition. It could be:
- bitumen (Hydroisol based on asbestos paper, Glass Ruberoid),
- tar, tar-tar compositions,
- rubber-bitumen composition (Stekloizol)
- rubber polymer
The best characteristics of rubber-bitumen and polymer-bitumen compositions. Some of them are designed for use in severe frosts - up to -40 ° C, some well tolerate high temperatures - up to + 150 ° C.
Folgoizol - on one side foil is glued on a bitumen-polymer binder
For regions with high temperatures, there are roll materials for roofing based on foil - Folgoizol. Bitumen-rubber or bitumen-polymer binder is applied to the foil from the lower side. Due to the reflectivity of the foil, the temperature of the roof will be 20 ° C lower. The front surface can be painted with weather-resistant paints and varnishes. Folgoizol bends well, cuts, nails with roofing nails. There are roofing (FC) and waterproofing (FG).
Roofing made using built-up roll materials allows to ensure:
- protection of building structures and premises from the effects of wind and precipitation,
- heat preservation in the cold season,
- protection of rooms from overheating on hot days.
Roofing should have qualities such as:
- tightness of the finish,
- good thermal insulation
- strength and durability.
To create a reliable soft roof, materials are used that differ in the type of base, the binder and the type of protective coating. Choosing a built-up roofing membrane, it is recommended to give preference to a polymer-bitumen roll material on a durable basis of polymer or fiberglass. It should be borne in mind that there are no state standards for the manufacture of these products, manufacturers are guided by TU of their own design.
A membrane with a coarse-grained or fine-grained mineral protective coating is used for installation of the finish coating. Laying of a built-up roof requires the formation of a roofing carpet of rolled material with a polymer external protective film to prevent stratification of the flooring during operation.
Types of substrates for laying roof
Installation of the built-up roof is carried out on a flat surface. As the basis can serve:
- load-bearing reinforced concrete slabs (seams are closed with cement-sand mortar M 150) without leveling screed,
- mineral wool heat-insulating plates without leveling screed,
- monolithic thermal insulation made of light concrete, materials based on bitumen or cement binder with a filler (vermiculite, perlite), reinforced with road mesh,
- leveling monolithic screed made using asphalt concrete, cement-sand mortar M 150,
- prefabricated dry screed of cement-bonded particle boards, flat sheets of asbestos cement, glass magnesium or other materials with a sheet thickness of 8 mm and laying in two layers.
The technology of laying of a built-up roof requires preliminary preparation of surfaces of vertical structures made of piece materials - parapets, ventilation shafts, chimneys, etc.
The walls of the parapet and the construction of brick, foam blocks and other piece materials must be plastered to a height at which the edge of the roofing will be wound - from 250 mm or more. As a plaster mixture, cement-sand mortar M 150 is used.
Base Surface Requirements
From the surface on which to install the built-up roof, you need to eliminate:
- potholes and sinks,
- influx of concrete,
- bumps with sharp edges
- protruding reinforcement fragments,
- oil and cement milk stains,
The sharp corners of the structures, the ends of the reinforcement, concrete flows are cut down and cleaned. Oil stains should be burned out. The film of cement milk is removed by wet or dry blast-abrasive cleaning. Dust is removed with:
Large potholes, cracks and sinks are repaired using cement-sand mortar M 150. Small cracks and potholes can be poured with heated bitumen mastic.
Processing of the base for laying the surfaced roof with mechanical brushes, grinding, milling cutters is unacceptable, as this leads to surface damage, the formation of furrows.
Surfacing requires a smooth and even base. Check the evenness with a two-meter rail. It is permissible to have smoothly growing irregularities with a height of not more than 5 mm along the slope and 10 mm across. The number of such irregularities should not exceed two per 4 m 2 of the total base area.
When arranging the screed under the surfaced coating, it is necessary to provide heat-shrinkable joints with a width of 5 mm, which should not be located above the seams of the bearing concrete slabs and the seams of monolithic thermal insulation.
Preparation for installation
Laying the roofing carpet is done on a dry base. For determination of humidity, a device is usually used - a surface moisture meter. If you build a built-up roof with your own hands, you can conduct a simple test: a square of a polyethylene film (1 × 1 m) is laid on the surface of the base. If condensation does not appear within 4-24 hours, you can proceed with the installation of the coating.
The following methods will help reduce the moisture content of the substrate.:
- the wet surface is wiped with rags dipped in acetone and dried with a stream of hot air from a building hair dryer,
- blowing the surface with heat guns or compressed air from the compressor,
- a heating cable is laid in the expansion joints.
In places where the base adjoins the vertical structures, it is necessary to create fillets - sides with a tilt angle of 45 ° and a height of 100 mm. For this, asphalt concrete, cement-sand mortar or a rigid mineral wool slab is used.
Immediately before laying the deposited material, the base is cleaned of all types of contaminants, since they reduce adhesion. The surface is thoroughly primed. For this, a ready-made bitumen primer is used, or a primer made of bitumen (BN 70/30, BN 90/10, BNK 90/30) with the addition of a rapidly evaporating solvent (gasoline, nefras) in a ratio of 1: 3 or 1: 4 by weight is independently prepared. The primer is applied using a roller, brush or brush.
Equipment and tools
Surfacing equipment includes:
- a roofing gas burner connected to a gas cylinder through a reducer,
- putty knife,
- roofing knife
- feed roller
- brushes for cleaning the base, applying a primer,
- overalls (work overalls, shoes with thick soles, protective gloves).
You can start laying the coating after the base coated with the primer has completely dried - the primer should not stick. Installation begins from the bottom of the roof. At the first stage, the roll must be completely rolled out to make sure that it is correctly positioned. Then, with the help of a burner, the initial edge of the roll is fixed, and the material rolls back.
The built-up roof is reliably attached to the base due to the melting of the lower bitumen layer of the rolled material and heating of the primer. The weld roof burner should be positioned so that the flame heats the bottom of the roll and the base of the roof. Such heating allows you to create a kind of influx of protruding bitumen - it contributes to the adhesion of the membrane to the base as the roll rolls.
Types of Roll Materials
Slate, whatever one may say, is just slate. Unlike roofing materials, which have a rather narrow specialization, rolled, firstly, in addition to the final roof covering, can be used as waterproofing (for example, foundations and basements).
And secondly, all steam-, wind- and waterproofing building membranes used in roofing cakes and in the construction of ventilated facades also belong to roll materials for roofing.
Whatever type of roofing you choose, roll roofing materials can not do
Roll materials, regardless of their purpose, scope or material used, are divided into two types:
- fused or glued. Glued with the base during installation, for example, using bitumen mastic.
Application of bitumen mastic
- membrane. They are attached mechanically and are either vapor-permeable (that is, “breathe”), or during installation, an air gap is left for ventilation.
Bituminous roll materials: traditional and modern
Traditionally, materials impregnated with bitumen or tar include roofing felt, roofing felt, and glassine.
Then, topping, for example, from sand is applied: this increases the mechanical strength of the coating and prevents the material from sticking to the roll.
Installation of surfaced roofing material
Roofing material can be used as an independent roof covering (marked with the letter “K”) or as a lining carpet (marked with the letter “P” in the marking) when installing a built-in or soft roof. It differs in the material and type of topping (coarse-grained, fine-grained, dusty, flakes), as well as its elasticity and resistance to fading in the sun. Depending on the installation method, the roofing material can be both fused and membrane.
Laying roofing material
Contemporary ruberoid with fiberglass backing
In modern rolled bituminous materials, cardboard that collapses over time has been replaced with fiberglass, fiberglass, or synthetic fabric. Polymers that improved the properties of the material were added to the composition of bitumen.
Decorative sprinkles are available in various colors. It can also be applied in the form of a tile pattern. From a great distance, such a rolled flat coating seems voluminous.
Depending on the design of the roof, roofing material and other surfaced materials are stacked in several layers glued together (from two to five). Thus, a high degree of wear resistance and waterproofing is achieved. In addition to materials based on bitumen, polymer membranes have appeared and are becoming more and more in demand. A new word in the device of a rolled roof - polymer waterproofing membranes. Unlike surfaced bitumen materials, the polymer film does not stick together with the base. Individual membrane sheets are welded together at the seams, forming a solid, one-piece coating.
The built-up rolled roof with a decorative front surface. Photo from isolux.ru
Polymeric membranes for roofing
Polymer film for roofing
Membrane roofing can be used on roofs of various configurations. However, it is most convenient to make flat roofs and roofs of complex configuration, including dome structures. Polymer membranes are an ideal solution for the construction of inverse roofs (flat roofs covered with materials resistant to physical impact and abrasion).
Membrane roofing. Photo from the sitetbsspb.ru
Membrane installation is carried out in two ways:
Ballast method of fastening the membrane roof
The polymer film can be used not only as a membrane, but also as a glued material. This installation method is used on complex domed roofs.
Depending on the design of the roof, roofing material and other surfaced materials are stacked in several layers glued together (from two to five). Thus, a high degree of wear resistance and waterproofing is achieved.
In addition to materials based on bitumen, polymer membranes have appeared and are becoming more and more in demand.
A new word in the device of a rolled roof - polymer waterproofing membranes. Unlike surfaced bitumen materials, the polymer film does not stick together with the base. Individual membrane sheets are welded together at the seams, forming a solid, one-piece coating.
The advantage of polymer membrane roofs over surfaced, in addition to the service life and reliability of the waterproofing coating, is the installation speed and the absence of open flame during work. The seam is welded with hot air, which can be done using a conventional building hair dryer.
When choosing material for a roof, do not look down on rolled roofing materials. Choose consciously, taking into account your requirements and technical conditions, and not so that the neighbor is tormented by envy.
Installation of roll roofing
- If the slope does not exceed 5%, then in 4 layers. High-rise buildings, as a rule, are built with flat roofs, so 5 layers will be enough.
- If the slope value ranges from 5-15%, then a three-layer coating is enough.
- In case of exceeding 15%, 2 layers of roofing are laid, or a single-layer soft tile.
This information is relevant if the material used is rolled roofing gost and refers to the coating of recent generations. Reliable laying of ordinary roofing material is guaranteed only if there are at least three layers. In addition, the roof construction features require special attention, therefore it is better to consult experienced builders on this issue.
Roll roofing rarely consists of one layer. Depending on the slope and complexity of the structure, two to five layers are laid. The lower ones are used for waterproofing, maintaining heat and improving sound insulation. They are called “lining”, in the markings they are indicated by the letter “P” (the letter reflecting the purpose of the material is in second place).
What do the letters in the marking mean
The top layer should be more durable, it has the main mechanical load, climatic and environmental factors. The most expensive materials are used for this layer. They are called "roofing" and are indicated by the letter "K".
Types of protective coating
Binders used in the manufacture of rolled roofing materials require protection from the effects of weather factors. As a protective layer, sprinkling of different degrees of grinding is used:
- coarse-grained (K),
- fine-grained (M),
- dusty (P),
- flake (H),
- special resistant to alkalis or acids.
Coarse powder not only protects, but also gives a decorative look
In the marking, the letter showing the type of topping costs a third. Roll materials used for lining are sprinkled on both sides with a fine-grained or dusty powder. Its task is to prevent sticking together in a roll.
Fine-grained or dusty crumbs are also applied to the back side of the roofing roll material, and coarse-grained or scaly, which not only protects the coating, but also gives it a more attractive appearance. To give an even more aesthetic appearance, the sprinkle is painted in different colors. Usually it is red, gray, burgundy, brown, green and blue.
Most of the materials for roll roofing are fused to the base. For this purpose, special burners are used that are connected to LPG cylinders. With their help, the lower binder layer is melted, adhering to the base or already laid material. This technology is used on flat roofs covered with reinforced concrete slabs (for example, in garages).
The method of mounting the roll roof on the mastic
In private housing construction, flat roofs are very rare in our country. On small houses, this is usually a gable roof, less commonly a gable roof. The roof system and the lathing of these roofs are wooden, the use of open fire on them is a big risk and the owners of cottages or small houses are looking for a rolled roof, which does not need to be surfaced. There are also such materials. Some of them are attached with mastic, some are nailed (about them a little lower). There are materials with a self-adhesive layer. All that is needed is to remove the protective film, roll out the material and press it tightly.
Roll-up roof made of a material with a self-adhesive layer
Roll roof base
Surfaced roll materials are usually laid on flat concrete roofs. In some cases (when repairing the roofs of garages) they can be laid on a metal base. In this case, the roof material itself is the basis. All that is needed is pretreatment with liquid waterproofing. There are two options:
- Bitumen Primer Suitable for concrete and metal. It is ready-made - in buckets, you can do it yourself - mix bitumen with diesel fuel.
- Penetrating cement-based waterproofing. It contains polymers whose chains block the pores through which moisture seeps. Such treatment significantly reduces the water absorption of concrete. Its minus is the high price. And the second - in order to weld roofing material from above, you still have to coat the roof with bituminous mastic from above. Expensive pleasure. But after such treatment, even if the upper layers let water pass, the roof simply cannot leak. If at least a slight bias is made towards the drain (a prerequisite, by the way), the water will leave, almost without seeping down.
On pitched roofs under a rolled roof make a solid base
On pitched roofs with a rafter system for rolled roofing materials, a solid base is necessary. Most often, they make a continuous crate of plywood, OSB, edged or grooved boards. But these bases are combustible and it is impossible to weld a rolled roof onto them using a burner. Then use materials for a rolled roof with a mechanical installation method (slate nails) or glued to mastic.
There are several options for non-combustible materials from which you can make a base for a rolled roof - a flat slate, DSP, GVL and professional sheet (galvanized). On these bases, special pads and long pointed self-tapping screws with plastic sleeves are used for fasteners.
An example of fasteners for roll roofing company Technonikol
Any prefabricated bases are made of sheet material with a thickness of at least 8 mm, laid in two layers. The second layer is laid so that the seams of the first layer overlap with sheets of the second (with offset seams).
Materials for roll roofing without fusion
They are not very many, but they are. Mounting method - with roofing nails (galvanized with a wide flat hat), on a special mastic (usually on mastic for a flexible tile). Some have a self-adhesive base protected by a polymer film. This film is removed during installation, rolling the stacked part with a heavy metal roller, trying to avoid air bubbles.
So, the materials that are attached to the mastic with nails have a self-adhesive base:
- Stekloizol. Based on fiberglass or fiberglass coated with bitumen. Stacked on bitumen mastic. The warranty period is 5 years.
- Ruberoid. Based on building board impregnated with fusible bitumen. Mounted on bitumen mastic. Warranty - up to 5 years.
- Technoelast Solo. A bitumen-polymer binder is applied to the polymer base, has an increased thickness (at least 5 mm), can be used without additional lining layers, and has enhanced fire-fighting characteristics. It is laid on mastic with additional fastening on nails or self-tapping screws; fusion of seams is necessary. The service life is 25-30 years.
Tekhnoelast Solo - for the device of a rolled roof from a single layer
Adhesive-based roll roofing material - Tekhnoelast S
As you can see, there is a choice. True, there are only two categories - very cheap and expensive materials, but you can choose based on plans for the near future. If a temporary option is required - to cover the roof for several years - you can use cheap materials. If the roll roofing is arranged for a long time, it makes sense to use expensive ones.
The device of a roll roof without fusion
No matter what the base of the roof, it should be even, dry and clean. No debris or dust. Only clean stuff.
You can make a roll roof on a pitched roof, but you will have to use certain materials that are designed for this and follow the rules and recommendations. The thing is that rolled roofing materials have a fairly solid mass. Without proper fixation, they slide down under their own weight. To prevent this from happening, special measures are needed. Here are the rules for installing a roll roof with mechanical fastening:
- When the slope is less than 15%, the web is rolled parallel to the ramp. Stacking starts from the bottom, moving up.
With a slope of the roof up to 15%, the rolled roof is rolled parallel to the slope
The displacement of the panels when installing a roll roof
Overlaps when installing a soft roll roof with mechanical fastening
Fastener installation diagram
How to fix the canvas on horizontal joints
Pipe outlet sealing
In places where pipes or antennas exit through the roofing pie, an additional layer is laid. It sticks to the mastic directly on the base. To seal the passage of a round pipe through a roll-up non-surfaced roof occurs using a special rubber shaped element. This is an elastic cap with a rubber skirt. It happens for pipes from 110 mm to 250 mm in diameter.
Shaped element for the passage of the pipe through the roll roof
The rubber cap is pulled onto the pipe, lowered so that the skirt rests freely on the base. The bottom of the skirt is smeared with mastic, well pressed. Having departed from the edge of the skirt 10 mm, install fasteners in increments of not more than 200 mm. The joint of the rubber cap and pipe is filled with appropriate sealant (for chimney pipes, the sealant must be heat-resistant).
Further, roofing material is laid on top, which is additionally fixed around the pipe with nails or self-tapping screws with washers. The installation step of the fasteners is not more than 250 mm, but there should be at least 4 fasteners around the pipe.
Joint with vertical structures (abutment to a wall, brick pipe)
At the junction of the roof with a vertical wall, an additional layer of underlying material is laid. It should go at least 250 mm on a vertical surface, at least 200 mm should lie on a ramp. The entire surface of the additional layer is smeared with mastic, well pressed. Then the upper part is still attached to the metal edge rail. It is attached to a vertical surface with self-tapping screws with washers of at least 50 mm in diameter. The joint of the slats with the wall is filled with polyurethane sealant.
Example of joining a vertical wall
If the roof is insulated, in order to ensure a high degree of tightness, several additional layers can be made (figure above). Each of them goes 100 mm further than the previous one. Each is smeared with bitumen mastic, but the bar is nailed only to the very top, although the intermediate ones can be fixed with screws with washers with a pitch of 200 mm.
These are all the main points that are necessary when installing a roll roof without fusion.