The right indoor climate is the key to health, vitality and well-being of apartment residents and office workers. There is no need to prove the benefits of a comfortable microclimate for a long time: it provides complete relaxation and improves performance, improves immunity, and gives a good mood. How to create the right microclimate at home and at work?
First you need to know the parameters of the optimal indoor climate. And if the air in your apartment or office does not meet the standards, it is important to use modern climate technology to give yourself and your loved ones health and longevity.
The main parameters of the indoor microclimate
- humidity level
- air speed
- air exchange
- noise level,
- biological and chemical air pollution.
We will talk about the main parameters of the indoor microclimate, recall how they affect our health, and tell you which gadgets will help you create and maintain literally good weather in the house.
Normal indoor air humidity provides comfort for people and reduces the risk of respiratory diseases. Deviation of this parameter from normal values can gradually reduce immunity, worsen skin condition, and increase fatigue. In rooms with dry air, parquet, furniture, doors and other wood products may crack. Numerous studies have shown that overdried air negatively affects children's health.
Excessive humidity also adversely affects human health. Under the influence of a large amount of moisture, fungi and mold begin to multiply actively, walls, furniture, clothes, books, etc. deteriorate. The dampness in apartments occurs for various reasons: it is possible that the heating system is poorly regulated, the room is rarely ventilated, and there is constant washing and drying of linen.
The most comfortable for humans is air humidity at the level of 40-60%. At the same time, the extreme values of the indicator can vary from 30 to 70%. With lower parameters, a person has dry mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and skin. It becomes stuffy and hot for a person.
Humidity in the nursery should be at least 50% - this is important for the normal functioning of the lungs of the child, maintaining healthy skin and creating a natural barrier for the development of allergies.
In offices, the ideal value for air humidity for a person is between 40% and 50%. When humidity drops below 30%, workers' health and comfort are at risk.
A hygrometer is used to analyze the humidity in the room. At low air humidity it is recommended to use humidifiers (steam, ultrasonic, with traditional evaporation). Many people put volumetric aquariums to increase humidity in rooms: both benefit and beauty.
|1. Steam humidifier||2. Traditional moisturizer|
If the humidity level in the room is too high, you should reconsider the housing ventilation system and think about the use of air conditioners and special dehumidifiers and dehumidifiers.
Air circulation in a room with natural ventilation
Natural air circulation is based on the pressure difference between the atmosphere inside the room and beyond. The metabolic rate increases, with increasing temperature difference in the room and outside. The basis of this process - physical laws - cold streams remain below, and warm is concentrated in the upper part of the room.
Clean masses come through open windows, vents and slots. But the used one is diverted through small ventilation holes. If the system is designed and organized according to the rules, then a soft and comfortable microclimate will reign in the house.
Natural ventilation in the kitchen and bathroom
For apartment buildings, where the ducts in the bathroom and in the kitchens are connected by a vertical shaft. The quality of traction directly depends on the height - it is higher where the shaft is longer.
The quality of the ventilation system is checked with a small piece of paper. It is applied to the grate, and if it is fixed to the grate, then everything functions well.
When cooking, it’s very easy to ensure efficient air circulation in the kitchen. It is enough to close the window in the kitchen, and in the most remote room of the house to open it. Due to this, natural traction is provided. Vapors and particles of fat are drained from the rooms into a small mesh outlet near the ceiling.
If you open the window in the kitchen, the hood will not be able to function. All vapors will rush to the entrance. This explains the fact that in many entrances there are all kinds of smells of cooking food.
Scheme and features of air movement in living rooms
In living rooms with high-quality double-glazed windows, the air flow is provided by opening the window. But with the advent of cold weather, this is quite problematic, since the room cools in almost a couple of minutes.
In such a hopeless situation, design engineers came to the rescue. They recommended mounting small valves in the wall (near the window) that look like a hole with a grill. The design of the valves consists of several blocks. In some models, they are mounted directly in the window frames.
Air masses, whose temperature is not lower than 20 degrees, move through the valve. Adjustment is carried out using special curtains arranged on the principle of blinds.
After mounting the valve, the need for constant opening of windows is eliminated. Pure oxygen quickly fill the living room. The main thing is full automation of the process.
For air exchange, it is important to equip a small gap under the door. In its absence, you can make several small holes directly in the door leaf. And to preserve design attractiveness, the gaps neatly decorate.
Forced ventilation air circulation
Natural ventilation is effective during a period when a significant temperature difference is established between the space inside and outside it. In other cases, using this type of ventilation is unprofitable. One cannot do without forced air exchange. It is based on the direction of pure oxygen due to its injection by a fan.
The fan is installed in the wall or in the window. Additionally mounted hood for forced removal of contaminated air from the room. Power is selected taking into account the degree of oxygen pollution.
Compulsory ventilation systems for living rooms
For air circulation in living rooms, a supply and exhaust system of a monoblock type is installed. The installation consists of several functional units:
In the process, this installation is virtually silent, and its design is easy to adjust to individual customer requirements.
Oxygen movement in forced ventilation systems in the kitchen
80% of the polluted air is concentrated in the kitchen. And the more often the stove or oven works, the lower the percentage of pure oxygen in the room. Often, a standard vent is not enough to remove the entire volume of odors, soot and small particles of fat. These products of combustion and cooking settle on the ceiling, which does not add to their attractiveness, aesthetic value.
Today, the correct air circulation in the kitchen is provided by built-in or mounted hoods. They are installed above the stove and promptly correct the outflow of contaminated masses. Some models have 2 independent fans, which guarantees high performance even for the most demanding housewives.
Cooker hoods are:
The latter do not divert polluted air into the outer space, but purify it, thanks to the filters installed inside. It is important to focus on one important aspect - for apartment buildings, the installation of such equipment is complicated by several problems.
- A closed air exhaust hole complicates the movement of the masses.
- A powerful extractor directs a large volume of contaminated oxygen into the main channel. In the case of its small cross-section, the withdrawal of contaminated streams will be simply impossible.
- Smells often penetrate neighboring apartments through a common channel.
- Sometimes such a combination is illegal. It is important to focus on regional acts, regulations and regulations.
The best option for a kitchen with one duct is to equip an additional channel near the ceiling or in the wall.
Proper air circulation in the apartment will ensure the absence of extraneous odors and other troubles in the form of soot on the ceiling. The most effective are forced installations. They guarantee targeted oxygen circulation with minimal financial investment and nerve cell costs.
Advantages and disadvantages of various types of humidifiers
|Steam||High humidification performance, |
Water, evaporating, is purified from non-volatile impurities,
Ease of maintenance - no consumables required.
|High power consumption |
Raise the room temperature.
|Ultrasonic||Accurate humidity control if equipped with a hygrostat, |
High humidification performance,
The temperature of the outlet steam is almost room temperature
|Expensive maintenance - the mandatory use of distilled water or special filters for water, |
The need for frequent addition of water, since the capacity of these humidifiers is limited,
In the absence of a hygrostat in the device, it is very easy to moisten the air, which leads to the effect of the bath: objects, underwear, clothes become wet.
|Traditional||Low power consumption, |
Do not over-moisten the air
Simultaneous cleaning and moisturizing,
Do not require consumables (except tap water),
Safe for children.
|The relatively large dimensions of the devices, |
The need for frequent maintenance of work surfaces is to clean plaque and change water,
Perhaps the most important factor in the microclimate of residential premises is air temperature. Both very cold and too hot rooms are equally unpleasant. Modern requirements for the indoor climate mean that the apartment will not have significant changes in air temperature in height and horizontal: fluctuations are allowed only within 2-3 degrees.
In the cold season, the room temperature primarily depends on the efficiency of the heating systems, and in the hot season, optimal microclimate allows you to create air conditioners.
The optimum climate for residential and public buildings in the warm season is considered to be 22-25 ° C, in winter - 20-22 ° C. The best microclimate of industrial premises starts for workers from 18 degrees. Complaints of discomfort begin to come, usually at an air temperature of 24 degrees and above.
According to existing standards, the heating system must provide the following indoor air temperatures in residential buildings: corridors, anterior - 18 °, kitchens - 15 °, showers, bathrooms - 25 °, stairs, toilets - 16 °. In dormitory rooms, for better sleep, an air temperature of 16-18 ° is desirable. In a nursery, especially if you have to swaddle a baby there, the optimum temperature will be about 23 degrees.
Optimum room temperature
|Type of premises||Temperature ° C|
|Living room:||optimal 20-22, valid 18-24|
|Kitchen:||optimal 19-21, permissible 18-26|
|Bathroom:||optimal 24-26, permissible 18-26|
|Restroom:||optimal 19-21, permissible 18-26|
|Interroom Corridor:||optimal 18-20, valid 16-22|
|Entrance Hall, stairwell:||optimal 16-18, acceptable 14-20|
|Storerooms:||optimal 16-18, valid 12-22|
Temperature Control Methods
Traditional devices for achieving the desired air temperature in winter are various heaters, heaters. Many install underfloor heating. To maintain optimum temperature, a thermostat in an ENAUT outlet is useful. The device allows you to control the temperature and maintain a constant temperature in the room. It controls the operation of heaters, split systems and other climate systems. It is enough to connect the device to the thermostat (heater, air conditioning, etc.), set the desired temperature on the screen and plug it into a power outlet. The temperature controller will avoid overheating and overcooling of the room: when the desired temperature is reached, the thermostat will turn off the devices itself.
Indoor air movement
Hygienic requirements for the microclimate of the premises imply that the air in the home must be fresh, i.e. odorless, mobile and wet. To a large extent, these indicators depend on ventilation and ventilation systems. Stagnant air is able to accumulate in itself microorganisms that penetrate the human body and lead to the development of diseases. Too strong air circulation (such as drafts) provokes the development of colds. Therefore, it is important to find a balance - the best option for indoor air mobility.
The mobility of indoor air is measured by an electric anemometer and a catheter. Air speed is determined in space from 0.15 m from the floor to 1.8 m in height and at a distance of at least 0.15 m from the walls.
In summer, the speed of air movement in the room should be no more than 0.25 m / s. In the cold season - 0.1-0.15 m / s. The high speed of air movement (above 0.5 m / s) in the room leads to hypothermia and can cause colds. Large rates of air velocity cause a draft and are not very pleasant. Stale air is equally unpleasant: I want to open the window and breathe freshness.
How to reach
It is quite difficult to independently determine the quality of the air in the house. It is more worth focusing on your own feelings. To improve air quality indicators, it is necessary to have an effective ventilation system and regularly ventilate the room. Ventilation and air conditioning systems, as well as exhaust devices will come to the rescue, and fans will come in handy.
Indoor air purity
It is difficult to overestimate the importance of clean air, but many make the mistake of believing that tightly closed windows protect against street dust. In fact, the room contains many times more bacteria and germs than outside the window. Sources of air pollution can be dust, tobacco smoke, formaldehyde, fungi and mold, volatile organic compounds, etc.
Clean air in a room means that the size and number per cubic meter of particles such as dust, microorganisms, aerosol particles and chemical fumes are maintained in a given range.
Air purification technology
The purpose of the air purifier is clear from its name. The operation of the air purifier in most cases does not affect immediately. The air purifier must work constantly - only in this case it protects us from polluting agents. This is its main difference from a humidifier and an air ionizer. Put the cleaner where you are most often - in the apartment, office, etc.Choose an air purifier based on the area of the room and the type of filter.
|1.HEPA filter air purifier||2.Cleaner with electrostatic filter|
Carbon filter - The real enemy of volatile compounds. It perfectly relieves the house of unpleasant odors (such as tobacco smoke). It is these filters that are used in circular kitchen hoods. Coal does not work very well in a humid environment (it is combined with others) and is subject to planned replacement (the shift period must not be delayed).
HEPA filter - Provides the finest cleaning. It removes 99.99% of all dust, as it was developed specifically for medical facilities. Models with such a filter element are more expensive. In addition to washable HEPA filters, there are replaceable ones, which will require additional costs.
Electrostatic filter - The easiest option for dust control. Several metal plates with a static field are used here. The dust passing together with the air between the plates is attracted and settles on them. The plates can be washed and not worry about the additional costs. The models themselves with such a cleaner in the basis can be attributed to the budget.
Photocatalytic filter - aims to fight not with dust, but with harmful impurities. Using an ultraviolet filter element, air will not only get rid of toxic impurities, but also viruses, bacteria and gases (including carbon monoxide). The efficiency of such cleaning is very high, and the service life of the filter element is very long.
The oxygen content in the air we breathe is constantly changing. For example, on the coast, its amount is an average of 21.9%. The amount of oxygen in the air of a big city is already 20.8%. And even less in the room, since an insufficient amount of oxygen is already reduced due to the breathing of people in the room. By the way, about 30% of urban residents have health problems, and one of the main reasons for this is air with a low oxygen content.
Normal is the constant presence of 20.94% of oxygen indoors. This is achieved by airing, installing a climate control system.
The content of aeroions in the air
Air ions are atoms and molecules of air gases that have lost or acquired electrons. Detailed studies of the outstanding Russian scientist Alexander Leonidovich Chizhevsky proved that with an increased content of negatively charged aero ions in the air, the body's fatigue decreases, resistance to infections increases, metabolism is normalized, breathing is improved, mental and physical performance is improved, stresses are eliminated, and the nervous system is strengthened. A person can fully relax, restore strength and improve the body.
The concentration of negatively charged air ions in indoor air should be at least 600 per cubic meter. see. For example, in a forest, in the mountains or on the seashore, their concentration can reach 50,000 per cubic meter. cm (which is why it breathes so easily). In city apartments, offices or on the streets, the content of air ions rarely exceeds 100-200 per cubic meter. see. Lack of ionization leads to constant oxygen starvation, decreased performance, loss of attention, increased fatigue, weakening of general immunity. Particularly affected are residents of cities that spend 90% of their time inside buildings.
Normalized indicators of aeroein composition of air
|Normalized indicators||Concentration of air ions, r (ion / cm3)||Unipolarity coefficient At|
|positive polarity||negative polarity|
|Minimum Allowed||> 400||> 600||0.4 Product Catalog|