Funnel spiders, whose Latin name is Agelenidae, belong to the family of araneomorphic spiders. In nature, 42 genera and 515 species of funnel spiders are known. In Russia, 26 species are distributed, which belong to 9 genera.
The name of this spider comes from two words - age and lenis, which is translated from Latin means "to move indistinctly." This name is due to the characteristics of the movement of these individuals. Their run, in contrast to the smooth direct run of other spiders, is intermittent and unstable. But, despite this feature, the insect was called "funnel", or "grass". In Eastern Europe, the most common type of this spider is a house spider. In Russian colloquial speech, it is often called a house spider.
The mating process for agelides is quite simple. It all starts with courtship, during which the male, having discovered the female’s web, starts tapping monotonously on it, thereby introducing the female into a trance state. Then the spider transfers the non-resisting, indifferent to everything that happens to the female in a place convenient for him and carries out mating. After that, the male and female live together for several weeks.
For food, all known species of funnel spiders prey on various arthropod animals. These are mainly soft-chinized arthropods. - small spiders, flies, mosquitoes, cicadas. But individuals are often found that feed on such potentially dangerous and well-protected insects as large orthopterans, ants, beetles, and even honey bees.
Representatives of the Agelen /> family - the most common species of this insect, which can be found throughout the region. The habitat of the species Tegenariaagrestis, Agelenopsis, Allagelena, Alloclubionoides, Tegecoelotes was found in the south of the Far East, Agelena Paracoelotes in Siberia and the south of the Far East, Iwogumoa interuna in Sakhalin, Moneron and the South Kuril Islands.
Usually funnel spiders can be found near people's homes or in the grass. But their especially frequent appearance was found in the autumn season, during the mating period, when the male on the walls of the buildings is looking for a female.
The mouse spider of the Missoulin family lives in Australia.
A relative of Funnel Web. Habitat - Australia.
The peculiarity is that having a very toxic poison in the arsenal that can kill a person, he does not do this, initially warning with the so-called “dry bites”.
When bitten, the spider does not release poison.
From a poisonous bite, the antidote used against funnels will help.
Females are completely black, while males have a reddish hue and red jaws.
Despite his modestly sounding name, this spider is very dangerous.
However, most often the mouse spider makes the so-called “dry” bites, without releasing its poison.
His poison has the potential to kill a person, although so far there have been no recorded mass deaths among people.
The combination of quick emergency therapy and the spider's habit of appreciating and cherishing its poison did not lead to serious casualties among people.
The first part of the video is a mouse spider, the second part of the video is a guzzling, two-legged homunculus.
The main thing here is not to confuse.
Cyclocosmia, or "spider hatch" - a genus of the family Ctenizidae.
Spiders of this genus have a sharply truncated abdomen, ending with a chitinous disk, which is strengthened by a system of ribs and grooves.
During danger, they dig vertical burrows with a depth of 10 to 18 cm, which they cover with their abdomen.
These unusual spiders live in China, Thailand, Guatemala and the southern states of America.
At the first glance at the spiders from the Cyclocosmia family, we can say that these are some of the most unusual animals in the world.
They surprise, first of all, with their special appearance.
Decorated with a pattern, the sharply truncated abdomen of such spiders resembles an ancient seal.
Along its edges are many small sharp spikes.
However, such a “seal” is not only an adornment for spiders.
Protecting themselves from dangers, representatives of this species close the entrance to their hole with a rigid abdomen, like a lid.
The red-backed spider (Latrodectus hasseltii) belongs to the genus of black widows and is very toxic.
They live in Australia and have a distinctive red stripe on their backs, as well as an hourglass figure on their stomach.
Before the antidote was created, 14 people died from bites of a red-backed spider.
Most people suffer less severe symptoms, from localized skin infections to swollen lymph nodes, headaches, fevers, nausea, and tremors.
More significant, although rarer consequences are respiratory failure, amputation of limbs, and even coma. It’s easy to understand why this kind has such a bad reputation.
The genus Heyrakantium, to which the sak spider belongs, consists of 194 species, lives in Europe, Asia, Africa, is found in Australia, America.
In the post-Soviet space a couple of decades ago, representatives of the genus were well known to residents of the southern regions -
Central Asia, the Caucasus, Crimea, Krasnodar Territory and the Rostov Region, and steppe Ukraine.
The abnormally hot summer of recent years has contributed to the fact that flocks of arthropods began to migrate northward.
Now a poisonous spider can be found in the suburbs, the Volga region, southern Siberia, throughout the middle lane.
Females are larger than males. Some individuals in the leg span reach 2–2.5 cm, the body itself has a more modest size - 7–15 mm.
The spider is called yellow for the color of the abdomen.
It is bright yellow or beige; in some types of heiracantium, a reddish longitudinal strip is visible on the back.
The cephalothorax is orange, with a powerful oral apparatus.
Compared to the small size, the jaw-chelicera are simply huge, ending with curved claws.
With their help, the Sak spider bites through the solid chitinous shell of insects and injects poison.
Heyrakantium has characteristics that allow you to quickly identify it. Arthropod lives 1 year.
The female lays eggs by the end of summer, after a few weeks spiders come out of them.
She is a devoted and selfless mother.
Protects a cocoon with eggs, and then hatched spiders to the last, in the literal sense of the word, sigh.
In some types of heiracanthiums, the grown up children eat the mother (the phenomenon of matriphagy).
The bite of the yellow sak spider is not as terrible as, for example, karakurt, but its poison is toxic.
According to the first symptoms, it resembles the bite of a hermit spider, which not only causes panic in the victim, but also misleads the doctors.
By the way, most doctors in regions where dangerous arachnid has appeared recently generally find it difficult to diagnose a bite.
The bite of a sak spider causes a violent protective reaction of the body, can lead to unpredictable consequences.
It is accompanied by burning pain, which then becomes dull. The bite area quickly swells, turns red.
The bite site itches, blisters appear on the wounds left by chelicera.
Local soft tissue necrosis may occur, in which the wound does not heal for weeks.
Concomitant symptoms - chills, headache, nausea (shown in detail in the diagram).
The strength of manifestation depends on the individual characteristics of the body.
Allergy sufferers are more vulnerable. Arthropods can be a carrier of infections.
Treat the wound with a solution of potassium permanganate, alcohol tincture of calendula. Apply a cold compress to the site of the bite.
For effectiveness, add soda at the rate of 1 tsp. into a glass of water.
It is advisable to immediately take an antiallergic drug (suprastin, tavegil).
The six-eyed sand spider is considered one of the most dangerous spiders on Earth. This spider inhabits the sandy areas of South Africa and South America.
He lives in sand dunes, hides under snags or in tree roots, under stones.
He does not weave cobwebs, but hunts, burying himself in the sand and waiting for his victim in an ambush.
Prefers not to attack people, but if a person still encounters a six-eyed sand spider and a spider bites him, then this meeting can end in death for a person.
The poison of this spider is not inferior in toxicity to the poison of the Brazilian wandering spider.
The toxin contained in the poison causes rupture of the walls of blood vessels, which leads to severe internal bleeding.
There is no antidote for the bite of a six-eyed sand spider.
The size of the spider is not large, the length of the body is from 8 to 15 mm, and with a sweep of thin legs - 50 mm.
The sand spider has six eyes, unlike most species of other spiders, which have eight eyes, hence the name - six-eyed.
The color depends on the habitat and can be different - from pale yellowish brown to reddish brown.
The spider feeds on small insects, scorpions. It hides in the sand, in this position it can be for a long time, waiting for its prey.
Being in an ambush, the spider feels vibration from the movement of even the smallest insect, and when the insect approaches, it attacks, spraying its poison into the victim.
The insect dies instantly, the spider starts a meal.
A well-fed spider can do without food for quite a long time.
The six-eyed sand spider is a long-liver, its life span can be up to 14 years.
This species is one of the most dangerous and poisonous (after the Brazilian soldier spider and the six-eyed sand spider), since the Sydney funnel spider attacks the victim quickly and furiously. With his long and strong fangs, he can easily bite through not only the skin, but also nails, especially for children. Bites inflicted mercilessly and lightning fast, sometimes even several times. The poison of this spider is so strong that one bite is enough to kill a child.
If the victim is not promptly assisted by the introduction of an antidote, he dies within 15 minutes.
In terms of dimensions, this spider is quite large. The length of the female, taking into account the limbs, can reach 7 cm. Males are more miniature with thin long limbs. The most toxic of this species are males.. The color of the spider is dark, turning into black. On their surface there is almost no hairline, so they look smooth and shiny. Dwellings of Australian spiders are deep branched minks in tree trunks or in soft soil with several entrances. On the inner side of the wall and the entrance to the hole are shrouded in cobwebs.
Females of this species of spiders are very caring mothers who take care of their spiders within a month after birth. No one dares to disturb their peace, otherwise the female mercilessly kills the troublemaker, who subsequently eats. Also the spider killed by the victim feeds its children. This type of spider has its own communication system. For example, cubs, when they want to eat, touch their mother with their limbs. Thus, the female understands that it is time to feed them.
This is the most familiar type of yellow funnel spiders, as it can be found in any house, closet, barn and other premises. Sometimes on the back of house spiders you can see a dark brown pattern. The female is usually much larger than the male.
They set trap webs in the corners. In appearance it looks straight, but its central part drops sharply into the depth of the corner. The highest activity of these spiders is manifested at night. For a person, a house spider is not dangerous, since its bites are not poisonous.
This spider usually lives in meadows and fields. He stretches his web directly on the grass, fixing it on the stems. The color of the labyrinth spider is yellow. The size of an adult reaches an average of 2 cm. The abdomen of the spider is dark, sparse hair on it forms an abstract pattern. Along the entire length of the back of the labyrinth spider, 2 dark stripes pass.
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Harm and Benefit
The harm of funnel spiders in comparison with their use is negligible. Of course, especially poisonous spiders do great harm to humans, but such species are very rare. The main harm that we have to deal with is only in the annoying web.
The use of spiders is global. After all, spiders are very voracious creatures. Every day they need food weighing at least their own weight.
Some spiders can catch more than 100 insects a day using their nets, among which flies predominate.
Now imagine that in open areas (fields, meadows, forests) on 1 hectare of land live from 1 to 5 million all kinds of spiders, and each spider eats at least 2 flies per day, how many of these pests die due to spiders! After all, flies are actually not as harmless creatures as it seems at first glance. A fly is a carrier of a huge number of harmful microbes - about 26 million various microbes that cause terrible diseases in humans live on the body of one individual. And if not for the spiders, then the whole planet would have been flooded with myriads of flies long ago.
Funnel Spider Bites
If you are bitten by one of the species of such spiders, then in no case do not panic, since excessive anxiety can cause an accelerated spread of poison in the body. When biting a leg or arm, the bitten area should be bandaged with a tourniquet in the area just above the bite. The spider that has bitten you is best kept for identification.
After that, immediately contact the hospital, where you will receive the necessary medical care.
The consequences of a bite of a funnel spider can be different, depending on the species. The spiders that live in our house are completely safe. But the bite of the Australian funnel spider causes severe pain, nausea, swelling and even death. It is necessary to introduce the antidote as soon as possible.
Spread Sydney funnel spider.
Sydney funnel spider lives in a radius of 160 kilometers from Sydney. Related species are found in Eastern Australia, South Australia and Tasmania. It is distributed mainly south of the Hunter River in Illawarra and in the west in the mountains in New South Wales. Discovered near Canberra, which is located 250 km from Sydney.
External signs of a Sydney funnel spider.
Sydney funnel-shaped spider is arachnid of medium size. The male is smaller than the female with long legs, his body length is up to 2.5 cm, the female has a length of up to 3.5 cm. The color of the covers is glossy blue, black, dark plum or brown, beautiful, velvety hairs cover the abdomen. The chitin of the cephalothorax is almost naked, smooth and shiny. The limbs are thickened. Massive and strong jaws are noticeable.
Sydney funnel spider behavior.
Sydney funnel spiders are mostly terrestrial arachnids; they prefer wet sand and clay habitats. These are solitary predators, with the exception of the breeding season. Females usually live in the same place unless their shelter is flooded during the rainy season. Males, as a rule, roam around in search of a partner. Sydney funnel spiders hide in tubular burrows or crevices with uneven edges and exit in the form of a "funnel" woven from a web.
With a number of exceptions, in the absence of a suitable place, spiders sit simply in openings with a spider inlet pipe, which has two funnel-shaped openings.
The lair of the Sydney funnel pack can be in the hollow of a tree trunk, and raised several meters from the surface of the earth.
Males find females by pheremones secretions. During the breeding season, spiders are most aggressive. A female awaits a male near a spider funnel, sitting on a silk lining deep in the hole. Males often come across in humid places where there are shelters of spiders, and fall into water bodies by chance during their travels. But even after such a bath, the Sydney funnel spider remains alive for twenty-four hours. Taken out of the water, the spider does not lose its aggressive abilities and can bite its random savior when it is released to land.
Food Sydney funnel spider.
Sydney funnel spiders are real predators. Their diet consists of beetles, cockroaches, insect larvae, land snails, millipedes, frogs and other small vertebrates. All production falls on the edges of the spider funnel. Spider webs are weaved exclusively from dry silk. Insects attracted by the splendor of the web sit down and stick. A funnel spider, sitting in an ambush, moves along a slippery thread to the victim and eats that are trapped in insects. He constantly extracts prey from the funnel.
Sydney funnel spider is dangerous.
The Sydney funnel spider secretes poison, the atraxotoxin compound, which is very toxic to primates. The venom of a small male is 5 times more toxic than that of a female. This species of spiders often settles in gardens near the dwelling of a person, and creep into the premises. For an unknown reason, it is the representatives of the primate squad (humans and monkeys) that are especially sensitive to the venom of the Sydney funnel spider, while it acts not fatally on rabbits, toads and cats. Alarmed spiders provide complete intoxication by throwing poison into the victim's body. The aggressiveness of these arachnids is so high that they are not advised to get too close.
The chance to get a bite is too great, especially dangerous for young children.
After creating the antidote in 1981, the bites of the Sydney funnel spider are not so life-threatening. But the symptoms of the action of a toxic substance are characteristic: severe sweating, muscle cramps, excessive salivation, increased heart rate, increased blood pressure. Poisoning is accompanied by vomiting and pallor of the skin, followed by loss of consciousness and death, if you do not enter the medicine. When providing first aid, a pressure dressing should be applied above the bite site to reduce the spread of poison through the blood vessels and to ensure complete immobility of the patient and call a doctor. The distant state of the bitten depends on the timeliness of medical care.
The conservation status of the Sydney funnel spider.
Sydney funnel spider does not have a special environmental status. In an Australian park, they receive spider venom for testing to determine the effective antidote. More than 1000 funnel spiders were studied, but such use of spiders for scientific purposes is unlikely to lead to a sharp decrease in numbers. Sydney funnel spider is the object of sale in private collections and in zoos, despite its toxic qualities, there are lovers containing spiders as pets.
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Latin name Agelen> Tegenaria domestica ).
Beige-brown, with an oblong abdomen, striped limbs and a long pair of front legs (sometimes even longer than the hind legs). The size of the males varies from half to two centimeters. Females are usually a centimeter larger. The very first distinguishing characteristic is two dark stripes all over the back of the body. There are no strips on the first three molts.
They have four pairs of eyes, two of which are located in front in the same row. Two more eyes are located on the sides, and the last two on top. All eyes are simple except the last. Because of this Agelenidae rely more on motion sensors (front legs) than on vision.
Species of this family weave funnels in the form of funnels. The spider uses the web for hunting and protection, although it usually runs much faster than its own kind in size (genus Tararuafor example, can run up to 2 km per hour with almost no stops, chasing the victim).
On a web, a spider, as a rule, sits a little deeper in the funnel and waits for prey to pass by, which, just touching the laid web, will be instantly attacked. After killing the prey with poison, the spider drags it to his funnel. Often his funnel changes position due to the accumulated number of corpses of insects. For more than two to three weeks, the spider does not linger on it.
The funnel is sticky and not sticky, it depends on the type. If the web is not sticky, then the web will get tangled around the booty legs.
Perfectly make a web of childbirth Agelenopsis and Hololena, their web can be seen on the bushes and grass in the autumn morning, when the dew gathers on the web. Its area on the grass can reach 3 m². Moreover, several individuals can have an adjacent web (which is not the case with other species of spiders).
Funnel spiders are often aggressive, but almost not dangerous. According to their behavior, they are nocturnal, and the orbiting spiders often compete with them. Kind Malthonica - perhaps the only one whose representatives hunt during the day as actively as at night, so they are least likely to be seen on the web.
An unreasonably bad reputation in connection with an allegedly poisonous bite is of the genus Tegenaria, namely - Tegenaria agrestis (Meadow Spider). In Europe, there was not a single case of serious consequences after the bite of this spider. However, many American arachnologists have confirmed the involvement of the meadow spider in serious medical consequences in bitten patients (which in most cases resulted in skin necrosis).
In fact, Tegenaria does not have enough toxins in its poison to achieve a similar effect. Most likely, an infection, penetrating the skin through chelicera, could play a large role in these situations. This is a significant factor, since not all spiders can bite it.