Copyright © 2004 - 2019 Debian Installer Development Team
This manual is free software, you can redistribute it and / or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License. The text of the agreement can be found here: Appendix F, GNU General Public License.
This document contains installation instructions for the Debian GNU / Linux 10 system (“buster”) for the 32-bit PC architecture (“i386”). In addition, it identifies sources of more detailed information and describes methods for the most efficient use of the Debian system.
The first step is downloading debian
Well, let's see how we download debian. To do this, we need to go to the official website - www.debian.org. As you see everything here is English, there is a lot of different information here, you can read it if you want, you can translate this page into one of the languages that the debian site provides us with.
So, in order to download debian go to the tab "where to get debian". Here you can download the installation image, or you can try debian live before installation - this is just the LIVE CD, click and go. here we are offered to download via bittorrent or directly through a browser.
Two versions of amd64 and i386 are available here. The first version is a 64-bit version, and the second is a 32-bit version. Download the version that suits you.
Next, we get to the download page of the ISO image, which presents the version of the image, with 64-bit architecture and various versions of the graphic design (cinnamon, gmome, gnome, kde, lxde, standart and mate). Download any version that interests you.
Installing the Debian System
After the image is downloaded to a USB flash drive (or other medium), but it is better to use a USB flash drive. The system will install faster. How to write an image to a flash drive, I told in this article. I will not repeat. So the image was recorded. Now boot from it.
Select "Graphical install" with the cursor keys and press "Enter" to launch the installer.
On the first page, select the language that suits you and click the "Continue" button.
Next, select a location. The country in which you are located.
Now select the keyboard layout. And on the next page, the layout switching method.
I will leave it by default. I'm happy with Alt + shift. Then enter the computer name. It can be set by anyone at your discretion.
In the next window, specify the domain address if the computer is a member of the domain. If you have a network without a domain or no local network at all, you can specify nothing or enter localhost.
Click to continue. Next, you need to set the superuser password. Superuser or root, this is the main linux account. Therefore, the password must be strong.
Click continue and move on to creating a regular user. Under this account, you will work in the system.
Enter your name and click continue. The account login will be shown (usually the same as the name specified in the previous step). It can be changed.
Now set the password for the regular user and continue.
Indicate the city and time zone and continue.
We pass to a disk marking. You can select automatic mode. But I prefer to partition the drive manually. Therefore, we choose this mode.
All drives in the system are displayed. Select the one on which you want to install debian. In my case, the drive is alone so I will select it.
The disk is not marked up. Therefore, you need to create a partition table. Click "Yes" and continue.
There was a disk on which there is free space. Now create three sections. Click continue or double-click on the highlighted line.
We choose. Create a new section. Continue.
The first is to create a swap partition. I will make it 4 gigabytes in size.
Select the type of partition "Logical". The location will leave "Start."
Here in the item "Use as:" click twice or click the continue button.
A window appears with the option to select the available file systems.
Select "Swap Section" and click continue.
Select the "Partition setup is finished" item and continue.
As you can see in the screenshot, the swap section is created. Next, create the root partition. We select an empty seat and click continue.
This time, select the type of section "Primary" and the location "Start".
The debian installer offers us the right type of file system (ext4) and the mount point "/" root. I am comfortable with these settings. But they can be changed by double-clicking with the mouse or by selecting the desired item with the cursor keys, click the "Continue" button.
You can leave only the root partition, the system will work. But I recommend making another section for users. It is called "/ home". It is created in the same way as the root only as the mount point, select / home.
The result should be three sections as shown in the figure.
- Swap section (sub)
- Root (/)
- User directories (/ home)
Disk setup is complete. Select "Finish Partitioning and Burn to Disc", click "Continue"
Carefully check all the parameters! Did you choose the right drive, file system, size. After applying the settings, all information will be lost!
After making sure the settings are correct. Select "Yes" and click continue.
The disk will be partitioned and system installation will begin.
After copying the files, you will be prompted to configure the package manager. If your Internet is unlimited and stable, I recommend turning on archive mirrors from the network. Select "Yes" and click continue.
Choose the country. To speed up the download was higher. Choose a country that is closer to you. But this is optional. Choose any from the list.
Also select a server. Let's continue.
If you go online through a proxy server. Specify its parameters. If not. Just click continue.
Install the boot grub. Select "Yes" and continue.
In the displayed list of drives (in my case, it is one). Select the drive on which you want to install grub. The system will boot from this disk. Click continue and wait for the installation to complete.
After the installation of the debian operating system on your computer is completed. Remove all bootable media: flash drives, disks. And click continue. The computer will restart. Log in to the system and start using.
For clarity, I recorded a video - How to install debian on a computer:
Installation using debian netinstall
The so-called network installer "network install". You can download the iso image by going to debian.org in the upper right corner of the header there is a link.
This option is not much different from the usual one except that you can select the necessary packages after installing the base system. That is, the choice of software will be offered:
- Desktop environment (it includes: Gnome, XFCE, Cinnamon, KDE, MATE, LXDE)
- Web server
- Print server
- SSH server
- Standard system utilities
This method is suitable primarily for those who know exactly what they want to install. Another of the advantages can be noted that all packages will be the latest.
It is important to understand. For such an installation, you need to have a stable, fast and unlimited (or very cheap) Internet. All packages are downloaded over the network.
If you chose to install two environments, then during the installation you will need to select a display manager. In short. You will see this menu before starting the system. Here you will need to select a user and specify a password. It also selects the language and environment of the desktop. For example, install Gnome and XFCE. Choose between lightdm and gdm3.
This is what gdm3 looks like:
VIDEO: Installing Debian with netinstall (network install)
I prepared a list of the most popular terminal commands:
In this case, we will install the system on a virtual machine, but the installation steps, in principle, do not differ much from the algorithm that is used when installing on a real machine.
After that, run VirtualBox, or if you want, you can write using bootable utilities to USB Flash Drive and you can install it debian as the main system or on a virtual machine.
For example, install debian on a virtual machine. Click the create button, write the name of the virtual machine, select the linux type, version 64 bits. It is desirable to set the amount of memory to more than two gigabytes, and set the maximum available amount of video memory and add a virtual image debian-9.3.0 (iso) in the media.
In the case of a real machine, instead of this step, you will need to insert a USB flash drive onto which the system image is recorded and then hold down a certain key (as a rule, F12) when booting in order to boot from the USB flash drive or enter the bios settings and change the boot queue there - put USB Flash Drive comes first (when it comes to bios, it also means EFI).
Click to create a new virtual hard disk. Leave the type of media VDI. Go to the VirtualBox settings, in the system settings we set the optical drive first, and the hard drive - second.
Next, we are offered to choose the hard drive that we want to use - dynamic or fixed. You can read their differences in the description.
The size of the hard drive (12 gigabytes is enough), click create and now go to settings, the system tab, turn off the floppy disk, we don’t need it at all. On the display we set 64 megabytes of video memory, we select the media live CD.
Let's look at the live boot option. So, our goal is to install Debian and customize it a bit.
Next, the live version of debian is downloaded. First, the installer will ask you to select the language that will be used during the installation process.
Then we select the location, keyboard settings, a way to switch between the national layout and the standard Latin.
We look forward to downloading additional components. At this stage, after downloading and mounting the installation system will check the ability to connect to the network. Connection is detected automatically. If you use a wi-fi card that requires support for proprietary Linux drivers at this stage, an error may pop up. At the stage of determining the network card, if your network card is not detected, then you will be prompted to install the firmware, and then manually configure the network. In modern conditions, most often these settings all happen automatically using a DHCP server on the router.
The design of Debian is pretty, comfortable, everything is completely in Russian, everything is clear, simple, nothing complicated here.
It is proposed to enter the computer name (by default Debian), it allows you to identify your system on the network, then enter the domain name (for a regular user, you can leave the field empty).
Next, you must specify the superuser password and repeat the password. Come up with a fairly complex password, but make sure that you can play it.
You will have to perform actions on behalf of the superuser quite often, for example, even updating the operating system that occurs using two commands in the terminal will require a password.
Now in the next window enter the full name of the new user. Then enter the password for the user account you just created.
We turn to the choice of time zone for your country. You can choose one of nine time zones.
Next, it is proposed to mark the hard drive, which can be done both automatically and manually. Automatic is the easiest way, but it is recommended to select the item manually, because it is best to configure the disk layout so that we have more than one partition for the entire linux system, several partitions. Therefore, we will consider a slightly more complex option, but this is an important stage of the installation.
Select your hard drive, create a new partition table and agree. A partition table has been created.
We select an empty seat and create a new section here. First you need to create the main root partition and set its size.
Click continue and select that it will be a logical hard drive. Next, select the location of the new disk. Then you need to select the file system - Ext4, Ext3, Ext2, JFS, btrfs, FAT, etc. It is recommended that you select the Ext4 file system.
Mount point - here you can choose what interests us. In this case, the mount point was chosen automatically - the root file system. Mount options recommended - relatime, this will speed up the system. Partition setup is complete.
Next, create another new section - the home folder. Select a logical drive, leave the Ext4 file system. Mount point / home.
As you can see, debian is a pretty smart operating system and it knows that we need to create 4 partitions, and the main two are of course the root and home.
The next section to create is the swap section. Choose an empty seat> create a new partition. In this section, instead of the Ext4 file system, we select the swap partition.
We use the remaining space for the fourth - boot partition. The boot partition is logical, we change the file system to Ext2, we set the mount point / boot.
If you are using an EFI system, you will need to create an EFI partition. For it, the debian documentation recommends allocating 1 Gb (some installation instructions say a minimum of 512 Mb under the EFI partition).
Partition setup is complete. We have 4 partitions: root, home, swap, and boot. The order of sections can be any, i.e. not necessarily the first to go the root partition.
We confirm the changes and write them to disk. After that, the hard disk partitions are formatted in accordance with our markup.
After which the installation of the system immediately begins and the data is copied to disk. This procedure takes some time.
Configure Package Manager
We continue to configure the system, proceed to configure the package manager. You can, in addition to the software included on the CD, use the archive mirror from the network. It may also contain newer software versions. It is recommended to put “yes” here.
Next, the grub boot loader is installed and it is proposed to install the boot loader in the master boot record.
At the next stage, the installer offers to choose from ready-made sets of system software. You can select several sets by checking the box of interest (Gnome, xfce, KDE, Cinnamone, Mate, LXDE).
At the end of the installation, a message should appear stating that the installation was successful. Click the "continue" button.
That's all, you can safely close the live cd version, for this it is recommended to select the file> close and select turn off the machine, click ok.
Then again, go to VirtualBox settings, then in the system settings, set the hard drive first and the optical drive second. Unload the ISO image from the drive.
So, debian is ready to go. Select debian, press run, the Grub bootloader will appear (in this case version 2.0.2), select the topmost line of Debian GNU / Linux and press enter. This is no longer a live version, but a fully installed version on the hard drive.
After checking our sections, the system will boot. We enter the account information, enter the password and click enter.
Fine! The appearance of the desktop appears, and you can fully work with this operating system. Good luck!