Many novice artists can easily paint flowers, trees, houses. But when it comes time to draw people on paper, they are lost. Because they don’t know how to draw a human body. If you, too, do not succeed, do not even give up. Thanks to several techniques, you can quickly learn this.
Man is number one. No, I don’t like to call our faithful assistant that way ... Let's call him, well, let's say Stu. Start over.
1. So, Stu number one. He has four limbs plus head and trunk (no details). He does not give us very much - except perhaps the opportunity to get a hand (no, not about his face) in compliance with the proportions of the body.
2. Now Stu Second. Here there is already more nobility, in other words, there are more details. This Stu can show us not only the proportions of the main outlines, but also the proportions shoulders, forearms, legs and ... hips.
3. And finally, Stu number three (it seems that this is the grandson of the first Stu). After a uniform evolution, he turned into a perfectly folded (well, in proportion) a schematic man. Bravo to him! He can proudly show us and shoulders and pelvis.
Not everyone reaches this level of depiction of the simplest schematic Stu, pah, little men. And not from the fact that it is extremely difficult, it’s just that they don’t really set themselves this goal.
So, with the "proportional" little men have so far finished explaining - move on to practice. Remember childhood and slander people. BUT! Do not forget to observe elementary proportions. This is what the task will be: analyze how well and accurately you manage transmit proportions.
After completing the assignment, go to the little men in motion. It is with their help that we will be able to distribute in the future a full-fledged person so that he entirely fits on a sheet. Here are some examples.
Despite the fact that this article is about the anatomy of Tarzan, let's start with the composition. This is a very important stage in creating a human figure.
Let's start with straight lines to create a strong silhouette of Tarzan in action. This will be the basis in which we place the body of our hero.
2. Generalized skeleton
The next thing to keep in mind is the implementation of the skeleton. The example summarizes the group of bones. Each black line is responsible for a separate bone.
Rectangular elements symbolize a group of two bones. Arms, feet, legs and shoulders will be asymmetrical, and the skull, chest and pelvis will be symmetrical.
Body drawings in motion
This Stu throws a spear (or tries to knock down an annoying, stealing crop, a crow)
This one is dancing in a disco (or, alternatively, he was shocked by electric current)
Here is Stu Running away (probably you shouldn’t have teased the neighboring pit bull). Have you noticed that he already has shoulders? This is all due to the fact that we depict our Stu not on the forehead, but on the side.
Here you and Stu Fighting are probably the gladiator. Again, a peculiarity: the hand that holds the sword looks shorter, plus the rotation of the whole body - this is what the looking back person looks like (for example, the one who finds himself in the situation of Stu Runaway).
Here you have a desperately sad Stu. Well, or Stu, looking for yesterday ... Somehow.
But you can appreciate Stu, posing as a noble lord. The shoulders and hips are slightly deployed.
But this Stu suddenly decided to help the site administrator in yoga and therefore invented a new position. The poor fellow is probably very uncomfortable with him.
In general, the further practical part - everything is simple: come up with your little man and the things that he does, we will sketch the body. Then you can work out the sensation of body dynamics.
Upon completion of the movement with the little men, we go to the next level, called the little man of balance. One of the most important details during movement is the center of gravity. And since our legs weigh half the body, the center of gravity (following the laws of mathematics) will be located somewhere in the center - below the abdomen.
So, we begin to consider the movement of at least crazy buddy Stu by name, well, let it be Dean.
Red circles - the very center of gravity
Little red arrow - the direction of gravity (gravity)
The green arrow is the fulcrum.
All clear? Have begun.
3. Details of the skeleton
If the previous construction was too generalized, then this will be more detailed. It is very important to compare asymmetric bones with symmetrical ones.
The diagram shows the most important bones. A little later you will understand why understanding symmetry and asymmetry plays an important role in creating anatomy.
Balanced body drawing
There you are Dean the first (girls stomping in a bar). He is in balance not from the fact that he has not yet reached the bar, but, my dears, from the fact that the center of gravity is firmly held between two fulcrum (legs)
And here you are Dean returning from the bar (obviously today is not his day, and he didn’t come across decent girls). You can see the center of gravity, which moved away from the supports - as a result, the unfortunate Dean runs the risk of finding himself on cold ground.
Teks, in the next picture our schematic Dean did yoga (well, or his leg just itches - as an option). In any case, no matter what he does, but right now he is balancing - and this is possible only with more or less relative symmetry of the body.
Here Dean is also trying to stay on one leg.but his center of gravity, like his body, leaned to the right.
Well, here Dean trying to keep up with a suspicious guy (well, or vice versa - running away from the police). According to the picture, the center of gravity hangs forward and because of this, our Dean pulls down all the time, but he does not fall, because he runs - he puts his legs (fulcrum) alternately forward.
Dean pondering, waiting for someone, or simply Dean leaning on the wall. We can see that, again, his center of gravity is between two points of support - from the bottom of the leg, from above the shoulder.
it Dean portraying Bruce Lee (not bad, by the way). The center of gravity slides to the right of the support and, accordingly, the body will move to the right side.
In any case, neither ours Deannor Stu, nor any hero invented by you is required to be in balance - on the contrary, when a person in motion is good. This shows the dynamism of the character.
Now let's talk about body flexibility. Take a look at the schematic illustration of our friends girlfriend (there must be at least one girl in our schematic world, isn't it?) by name Charley. Here she just goes (looks a bit like Dean's gait, no?).
Take a closer look at how the hip joints and shoulders move - have you noticed that the shoulders are moving in the opposite direction from the pelvis? In the lower figure, Charlie lies on her side, leaning on her elbow, and her rib cage hangs as if hanging on the corresponding shoulder. By the way, our spine is flexible, which means that it can be in different positions.
Now recall the lessons of anatomy, recall the structure of the skeleton - the foundation, so to speak, of our body.
- head ( black color )
- rib cage ( blue )
- spine ( blue )
- pelvis ( blue )
- joints ( redColour )
- arms (green )
- brushes (green )
- legs ( green )
- feet ( green )
Take a closer look at how the spine arches in the following, profile images, and evaluate side view:
What? Does it look scary? Come on, I have a fallback: it’s just the one that makes it easier to understand the structure of our body (well, as for draftsmen):
Getting down to muscles, muscles, "sausages" and cellulite (already who has what ...). To do this, remember mentally how all sorts of ellipses, cylinders, squares and cubes, we’ll use them for starters, when we select the most suitable mold for a specific part of the body that we need.
So, here are some examples - from schematic sketches to volumetric sketches, of course, based on schematic ones. Red lines highlight all the connections we need.
Remember that each person is individual, and this is expressed in everything, including in the proportions of the body. It happens that it’s much easier to draw a whole man, and sometimes you have to start with the chest. However, this is all at your discretion and ability.
A couple of unobtrusive examples on the road:
- muscular man
- woman, standard figure,
- chubby man
In the same way, you can draw creatures that are more or less similar in structure to humans - starting from modern dinosaur heirs to birds and mammals inclusive:
Here you have a monkey, a doggie and a lizard
Finish the cartoons - everyone loves them (and don’t even dare to say that you don’t like cartoons even secretly). This method is generally gorgeous for cartoon characters - even joints here are not very visible.
They are quite simple. At the same time, these useful tips will help you cope with the necessary task:
- Even if you do not plan to turn your sketches into color illustrations, use a pencil anyway at the very beginning. It will allow you to correct the picture at any time.
- Do not push hard. Perform all movements only with light strokes. If you make a mistake or want to redraw an element of the picture, you don’t have to suffer, erasing thick lines with an elastic band.
- Practice every day. Do not be discouraged if you do not know how to draw a body. Believe in yourself!
- Watch your posture. You will not be able to give all your attention to the drawing, sitting incorrectly.
- If you are seriously interested in art, study the technique of other people, go to art galleries, buy thematic books. Experienced artists are well acquainted with how to draw a human body.
- If you are drawing from an already finished drawing, do not be afraid to make mistakes. Remember that you do not have to portray exactly the same character. It will be much better if it turns out to be different.
At all times, special attention was paid to the ratio between the parts of the body of the figure. Before you draw a body, you need to know its correct proportions. The height of the figure of an adult is 8 of his goals, a teenager is 7. This part of the student’s body can be positioned 5 times in length, the baby is 4. The size of the arms should reach the middle of the thigh, while the elbows should be on the same level with the waist, and the knees should be exactly in the middle of the leg. The length of the legs is 4 heads, and the head along with the body is half the height of the whole figure. The fingers of the lowered hand are located in the middle of the thigh. Foot height - nose size. And its length is the same as that of the forearm. The height of the female head is equal to the distance between the prominent points of the chest, the male - half the width of the shoulders.
Differences between male and female parameters
The average height of a man is about 170 cm, women - 160. The hands of a strong half of humanity are long and muscular, when the girls' hands are a little shorter. But the legs of women are longer (in relation to the torso). Men have a strong physique, broad shoulders and a short body. The female body is longer, the shoulders are often shorter than the hips. Men have a thick neck, girls - on the contrary, thin. As for the musculature, in men it is marked strongly. In this case, the contours of the body are sharp. At the same time, women have soft outlines, round shapes, the fat layer is larger. The male foot is massive, large, and the female foot is much smaller.
Draw a man
The following workshop shows how to draw a man’s body:
- Start on top. Draw a small circle, draw a curved line from below. You should get the shape of an egg, just turned upside down.
- Draw a neck by sketching two straight lines. As a guide, take the distance from ear to ear.
- Draw a long (2-3 head width) horizontal line so that it is perpendicular to the neck. It determines the location of the clavicles.
- At the end of the two lines, draw small circles of the same size - these are the shoulders. Sketch two ovals a little lower, a little longer than the height of the head - these are the biceps.
- In the place where the biceps begin, outline the body. Geometrically, it will look like this: an inverted trapezoid - a chest, vertical lines - a torso, an inverted triangle - a basin. Mark a place above the last geometric figure with a dot - there will be a navel.
- On both sides of the triangle draw two circles (most should be outside), and immediately below them are long ovals. They will be hips.
- Below are two small ovals for the knees. Let a little intertwined with the hips. And even lower - for the legs.
- For the legs, draw two triangles, at the very bottom.
- Try to draw body contests, add details, create clothes for your character.
4. Generalization of anatomy
And again, we begin by summarizing the muscles so that we can then understand the details. Note that the asymmetry of the muscles follows the symmetry of the bones.
Also notice the symmetrical large muscles that lie on the symmetrical bones and see how they affect the outline of the figure.
Draw a woman
Now that you know the basic proportions of a person and have learned how to work with a male silhouette, you can learn how to draw a female body:
- Start with the most important thing - draw a vertical line. To indicate the torso, place the inverted triangle in its upper part.
- Inside the resulting triangle, draw another one looking up. At the corners of the inner figure, outline two circles, representing the chest. If you did everything correctly, the first one should be on the right, and the other on the left of the line drawn earlier.
- Just below the main triangle, draw a circle of equal size. Its upper part should go slightly beyond the triangle. It will be a basin.
- To draw the hips and legs, draw two curved lines from the top of the circle. And below - two more, but already shorter. Some should look like brackets.
- Add lines and details, dress the girl.
Done, now you know how to draw a girl’s body.
5. Anatomical details
One of the principles of composition: go from general to detailed. Muscles have their own compositional dynamics. The picture shows the most important muscle groups.
Latin names may seem a little exotic to you, but you should focus on the shape of the muscles, and not on their names.
Now, based on everything that we discussed above, we create a silhouette. Please take the time to study symmetrical and asymmetric shapes.
Note that due to the asymmetric arrangement of the muscles, the shapes and curves also differ from each other in the upper body: arms and wrists.
The same goes for the legs. We notice this because very often people draw their arms and legs symmetrical to each other with the same curves on both sides.
Using the techniques presented above, you can draw almost any person - an adult man and woman, a teenager, a child. The main thing you need to do is follow the instructions, learn how to work according to the scheme. After a while, you yourself, without any help, will depict beautiful and proportionately correct characters on paper. Do not be discouraged if something is not working out for you. You can try again at any time.
Remember one more important rule: the artist’s work does not end at the moment when he understands how to draw the body. It is also necessary to think over the character’s hairstyle, his style, endow him with emotions, portray the character. In other words, use a pencil to “breathe” life into it. Learn the art of drawing, improve your skills - and you will surely succeed!
This geometric design will help you understand the location of light and shadow, it gives an example of a three-dimensional action that a character performs.
Now we can understand the features of contouring. Compare this chart with the chart in step 2, this will let you know how you can rethink your chest and pelvis according to the scene.
This image makes you feel that Tarzan is alive. If you remember this, then the picture will turn out better and more emotional. The diagram is based on the previous one, therefore it gives us a complete understanding of the silhouette of Tarzan.
This “mummy” is an excellent replacement for a living human model. Therefore, try to apply this method when you draw the human body.
This image clearly shows light and shadow in a future drawing. Such a contrast chart helps to better see the nuances. For Tarzan, we will use three tones: light, the shadow is lighter, the shadow is darker. And also a tone for emphasis.
10. The ultimate illustration
We hope that this drawing speaks for itself. Using these nine principles, you can understand how to correctly depict a human figure. Also, do not forget about the background elements, but try not to interrupt the main silhouette.