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Description, recommendation and presentation - concepts, features of compilation and design


Letter of recommendation compiled by an organization, firm or reputable private person. The letter is not official. It evaluates the work of a citizen that he performed in this organization. The document describes the knowledge and skills of the applicant for the position and assesses his personal qualities.

With the consent of the citizen, a letter of recommendation can be made or the necessary information obtained by phone and recorded by an employee of the human resources department. In fact, a letter of recommendation has the same function as a feature.

Characteristic (recommendation) is an official document and gives an assessment of the activities of this person as a whole. It is usually issued but to the requests of military commissariats, investigative bodies, courts, government agencies, large firms and similar organizations, it is submitted to the certification commission.

The characteristic is compiled by the head of the structural unit in which the employee works, signed by the first head of the organization or the authorized deputy of the first head and the representative of the trade union body. The characteristic reflects the opinion of these persons about this employee, is drawn up on a common form and must be dated. Signatures are certified by the official stamp of the organization.

The characteristics shall include personal data and the position of the employee, the time of work in the organization, at the enterprise, promotion but service, attitude to work, growth in the professional level, the presence of government awards and incentives. The business and moral level of the employee, his personal qualities, character traits are evaluated.

The text is presented in a third person. At the end of the characteristic, its purpose is reported, i.e. for presentation to which organization or for what purpose it is issued.

A letter of recommendation and description are issued to the citizen or forwarded upon request.

The description is compiled on a letterhead of the organization in any form and contains the following details: name of the type of document (“CHARACTERISTIC”), text, signatures, date, stamp.

In the text of the characteristic, it is possible to distinguish logically interconnected components.

First part - personal data, following the name of the document, which indicates the name, patronymic, last name, position, academic degree and title (if any), year of birth and education.

The second part of - labor data (specialty, duration of work in this organization, information on career advancement, level of professional skill, etc.).

The third part - proper characteristic, i.e. assessment of the business and personal qualities of the employee from both the positive and negative sides.

Fourth part - final - contains conclusions and recommendations in accordance with the purpose of the characteristics.

When compiling the document under consideration, one should abandon those templates and generalized wording that have developed in the practice of many organizations and do not reflect the needs of today in the selection and placement of personnel.

Formal, non-specific, unilateral written reviews do not fulfill their main task - to objectively characterize an employee, to give a complete picture of his professional, business and personal qualities in order to use his knowledge and experience in a particular field of activity.

In this regard, the most important part of the characteristic is a real assessment of the direct activity of the employee, his attitude to the assigned work, the quality and timing of its implementation, the desire for advanced training, prospects for professional growth, etc.

The characteristic is signed by the head of the unit in which the employee worked (), and for the top managers, their deputies and leading specialists, by the head of the organization. Below is the date of the compilation of the characteristics. Signatures on the characteristic are certified by the seal of the organization.

If the characteristic was approved at a meeting of the organization’s board, then the text refers to the number and date of the protocol of its conduct.

We formulate some requirements for a written description. '

  • - first of all, it should create in the imagination of a person reading a living image of a specific person, so that after reading it there would be a feeling of acquaintance with him,
  • - it must provoke, by its evidence, specific management decisions in relation to the characterized person,
  • - it must contain an explanation of the possible behavior of the employee (both "positive" and "negative"),
  • - it should show the strengths and weaknesses of the employee in their interdependence and interdependence,

the employee should feel positive emotions from the presentation of the characteristic (not because he is portrayed as good there, but because he is similar), so some people are happy to show their photos if they consider that they “turned out”,

  • - one should not prove, but “show” the presence of certain qualities (traits), even in some cases appeal not to logic, but to intuition,
  • - The characteristic should help the employee to become better, to understand himself, to understand how he appears to others.

They give the characteristic to the employee in his arms or, with his knowledge, send it to the organization that requested it.

In some cases, performance managers can conduct clarifying conversations with those to whom they were drawn up.

We give an approximate course of such a conversation.

  • 1. Greeting, invitation to sit down, personal words.
  • 2. An explanation of the reason for compiling the characteristics (if the subordinate does not know).
  • 3. Expressing praise about the behavior and work of the character, as well as the successes he achieved in training and continuing education.
  • 4. Discussion of positive ratings. At the same time, it is necessary to characterize: ^ 'give an incentive to think, motivate to achieve even higher results, raise the issue of promotion, etc.
  • 5. Detailed justification and reinforcement with specific examples of negative assessments. At the same time, one needs to express one’s point of view and explain it, never compare what is characterized with other employees or give them as an example, show positive sprouts, give advice on improvement opportunities, offer help, etc.
  • 6. Listening to the opinion of the characterized about the received assessments for each criterion, his objections and arguments. In this case, it is necessary to make the character feel like a conversation partner, not to expose himself to be the boss, but also not to become the level of “buddy”, to allow “let off steam”, etc.
  • 7. When discussing each individual criterion, determine its coincidence with the characteristic. At the same time, it is imperative to ask whether the character agrees with the estimates, and if there is a mismatch, check the characteristic again for a disputed sign or make a note on it that no agreement was reached on this point.
  • 8. An explanation and justification of the consequences arising from this characteristic.
  • 9. Clarification of the response.
  • 10. An encouraging closing word, gratitude for a frank conversation, hope for further good joint work, farewell.

Another important problem is the avoidance of errors in the preparation of the characteristics. Consider individual situations.

Sympathy / antipathy. It is necessary to try to exclude an unreasonable disposition or a negative attitude towards the person being characterized or individual traits of his character.

Mood. Mistakes or troubles make mistakes seem more serious than they really are. You should check the recordings later.

Not everything is measured only by itself. Do not consider your own behavior or results as the sole measure in compiling a characterization. Who is not as temperamental as you, does not have to be “lethargic,” he can be “calm and judicious.”

Selfishness / envy. Often, school graduates or people who come from outside are consciously evaluated more strictly by a person who is trying to show his own competence. One must not overestimate oneself.

Theory of personalities. It is necessary to try not to make generalizations "from many years of experience." For example, redheads are not necessarily aggressive. It should be objectively observed and evaluated.

Overlays. Certain positive or negative results, properties obscure other results and properties, and therefore it is easy to give an incorrect characterization. One must try to find out if these impressions influence the characteristic.

Generalizations - this, as well as bias, pre-formed opinions, for example, that all blondes necessarily have problems with the logic of thinking. You should check your opinion when drawing up the characteristics.

Tendency to softness. Fear of telling the truth in your characterization or desire to spare certain people. You need to ask yourself, maybe you spare others so that they don’t harbor resentment and let you down in difficult situations.

Severity and condescension. Some executives may be deliberately condescending to a number of employees to enable them to advance their work, create an impression of the service provided, and then use it or to gain their location. The boss, being mistaken, may also believe that poor employee assessment results may indicate his inability to make an objective assessment. Should be more demanding.

Centripetal tendency. Under the influence of market considerations, the boss can evaluate the work of his subordinates with a minimum range of ratings around the average level. In this case, all previous work on a systematic assessment of their work, unfortunately, is destroyed. You need to be more objective.

The halo effect. This is probably the most common mistake in conducting assessments, due to the subjective attitude towards subordinates, who, from the point of view of the boss, are not capable of doing anything bad or, conversely, nothing good. The latter has already formed his opinion about individual workers, and it is this subjective opinion that determines the results of the assessment of their work. All bias should be discarded and a fresh look at the work of their subordinates.

Statements of third parties. Rely on your own observations and conclusions. Without checking the opinions or advice of third parties, do not take them into account.

Recently, in the practice of the work of modern organizations, a different kind of characteristics is increasingly used - the ones discussed above letters of recommendation. Their distinctive feature from the first is that this type of document is not regulated, is not required and is necessary only in those cases when confirmation of work in reputable companies is required, the administration of which would vouch for the professional, business and personal qualities of their former employees, shown them during the work.

Often, in order to avoid problems when dismissing dishonest employees, the administration provides them with positive feedback and letters of recommendation. At the same time, in order to prevent such mistakes in a number of countries, the so-called Aesopian language is used in the preparation of such documents, for example, a former employee who abused alcohol, in the letter of recommendation they say “friendly” and characterize the restraint of women as “sociable”.

Ideally, while Russia has not yet developed uniform requirements for reviews, in order to obtain objective information about potential applicants for vacant positions in letters of recommendation, it is necessary to give the office telephone numbers of the latter along with the signature of the persons who composed them, for which you can get the necessary advice.

Other articles on this topic:

  • back:Autobiography and resume - concepts, features of compilation and design
  • Further:A receipt and a power of attorney of a personal nature - concepts, features of compilation and execution
  • Samples of the performance and presentation

List of sources used

What is the recommendation for?

Recommendation or, as it is also called letter of recommendation - This is a type of document that describes the professional qualities of a person.

  • information about his skills, ability to cope with assigned tasks,
  • communicate with work colleagues, customers, partners,
  • learning ability
  • achievements, successes and the like.

Sometimes the personal qualities of the former employee fit in, but only those that are directly related to the work functions performed.

The recommendation often allows people to find a good, well-paid job in a relatively short period of time, of course, provided that it is positive.

Who gives a recommendation

A letter of recommendation is always written on behalf of the previous employer.

Moreover, the direct director, for example, the head of a structural unit, department, workshop, site, is usually directly involved in the preparation of the document.

Sometimes the formation of recommendations falls on the shoulders of a specialist in personnel, the secretary of the organization, or the director himself (in small firms). In any case, it should be someone who is familiar with a person who needs a recommendation, or at least enough to give the most objective, adequate and fair description.

If the recommendation is written by an ordinary employee of the enterprise, it must be signed by an employee standing in a higher position - only if this condition is met will the recommendation have sufficient weight and solidity in the eyes of the person for whom it is intended.

What you need to do to get a document

In order to receive a recommendation from the employer, it is necessary to write a corresponding statement in the name of the director of the enterprise or one of its representatives, in which you should briefly and correctly express your request.

It usually takes no more than three days to review such applications and provide recommendations.

Is the employer required to give a recommendation to the employee

The labor legislation of Russia does not say anywhere that the employer should provide any advice to his former employee.

This means that giving or not giving a letter of recommendation to an employee is the exclusive right of the employer, not his duty.

Thus, in order not to be deprived of the opportunity to receive a recommendation, it is necessary to maintain good relations with the employer and colleagues - this will not only allow you to receive the necessary document in a timely manner, but also to some extent guarantee the presence of positive feedback in it.

Does the company have the right to demand a recommendation when hiring

As well as the provision of a letter of recommendation, so its requirement is the will of the employer. If a representative of the organization, while hiring, insists on providing this document, there is no point in arguing with him, it is better to spend your strength on stocking up with the necessary paper.

Providing a positive characteristic from the previous place of work (or even several) will significantly increase the chances that the desired place will be obtained.

How to write a letter of recommendation

Since the law does not require the employer to write letters of recommendation to their employees, it means that there is no standardized standard for them. That is, representatives of enterprises and organizations can draw up a document in any form.

It is important to observe only a few conditions, in particular, that in its form and structure the recommendation corresponds to the rules of office work, and in terms of content and text - to the rules of the Russian language. The document should be sufficiently capacious and concise, strictly in essence, without vague wording, special terms and rude expressions.

The recommendation must include:

  • name of the employing organization on behalf of which the document is drawn up,
  • position and name of the person who directly gives the recommendation,
  • the characteristic itself - only the business and professional qualities of the employee, his success in the workplace, etc. should be indicated here.
  • information on why a person was fired from this place of work.

In the recommendation, it is permissible to give wishes to the future employer about under what conditions and in what jobs it is best to use the work of this applicant.

If desired, any additional documents can be attached to the recommendation: copies of certificates of achievement, victories, etc.

What should not be written in the recommendations

Despite the fact that the preparation of the recommendation is completely at the disposal of the employer, when writing it, you should adhere to certain rules and avoid some things.

In particular, you should try not to give negative, unsubstantiated feedback (i.e. writing such, of course, is not forbidden, but only if there is evidence and confirmation, for example, written evidence of disciplinary sanctions, etc.), but it should immediately be borne in mind that such a document is unlikely to ever be used for its intended purpose.

Inaccurate, unverified, or knowingly false information should not be included in the recommendation - the disclosure of such facts will damage the reputation not only of the person to whom the document was issued, but also of the person who issued it.

Rules for compiling a document

Letters of recommendation are widely used in foreign countries, but increasingly they begin to be found in Russia. Citizens who are specialized specialists, nannies, or accountants often collect portfolios that include recommendations from past employers. Such documents often act as a decisive factor in deciding on the employment of a citizen.

Examples of letters of recommendation allow each head of the company or an individual to correctly compile this document. When forming it, it is advisable to take into account some rules:

  • when writing text, it’s used exclusively business style,
  • if the head of the company is involved in writing a letter, it is advisable to use the company letterhead,
  • You can start the text by contact, if you know who will read the letter,
  • it’s undesirable to use different artistic techniques or metaphors,
  • it is necessary to list the specific skills that a citizen possesses, which will allow the future employer to determine the advisability of using the services of a specialist,
  • It is recommended to fit all the text on one sheet,
  • at the end of the document, the contact information of the originator is listed, provided by email or phone number, which will allow the future employer to verify the accuracy of the information,
  • a letter of conviction will be convincing, listing the concrete successes of a citizen at his previous place of work, for example, raising sales by several percent or successful and timely preparation of documents.

The content of the document depends entirely on who and for whom it is being prepared. First you need to study examples of a letter of recommendation for different specialists.

Content of the letter

Most often, such documents are prepared by employers for former employees. When writing any letter of recommendation, the correct structure of the text should be taken into account. Therefore, the document consists of elements:

  • The title represented by the title of the document
  • Information about the company or individual involved in the drafting of the documentation,
  • data is provided about the direct specialist for whom a letter of recommendation is being generated,
  • lists the candidate’s positive qualities, successes and other relevant information for the future employer,
  • the official duties indicated by the citizen at the previous place of work are indicated,
  • different achievements of a person in a company are given,
  • the reason why the specialist left work is prescribed.

At the end, a manager’s signature is necessarily put, which confirms that it was he who was involved in the preparation of the document, therefore I agree with all the data given. It is advisable to study the example of a letter of recommendation from the company to the employee in order to draw up a competent document.

Rules for registration

All points in such a document should be drawn up taking into account certain rules, which allows you to create a truly correct recommendation. The information should be comprehensive and interesting for the future employer. Studying examples of a letter of recommendation from the employer, we can draw conclusions regarding some of the rules for writing:

  • the title should be in the middle of the page,
  • the adviser submitted by the employer must indicate his contact details so that, if necessary, the future head of the citizen could contact him to confirm the information in the document,
  • information about the employee should be understandable, and this includes not only his name, but also the position he held at his previous job,
  • It’s advisable to indicate how long the citizen worked in the company,
  • all the duties performed by him are listed, which will allow the future employer to determine whether it is advisable to draw up a specialist for a specific position.

The emphasis is on the positive parameters of a specialist, which include education, punctuality, learning ability or other characteristics. With their help, the new leader will be able to understand how suitable the candidate is for the planned work.

What mistakes are made?

When drafting a document, managers of various companies often make serious mistakes, therefore, to prevent them, you need to carefully study the example of a letter of recommendation. An incorrectly made recommendation can harm the candidate, therefore it is important to take a responsible approach to its creation. The following errors are not allowed:

  • the use of pens of different colors,
  • the use of diagrams or drawings,
  • writing text on a regular sheet, and not on a company letterhead,
  • the presence of numerous artistic additions and designs,
  • mistakes in words
  • excessive exaggeration of the positive characteristics of the employee.

If the text greatly praises the employee, then such a letter raises suspicions and doubts among the future employer.

How to write a letter for a former employee?

Most often, a letter of recommendation is drawn up for former employees who leave for various reasons. If a good relationship is maintained between the specialist and the employer, then the head of the company can write a recommendation. To do this, it is advisable to look at an example of a letter of recommendation to an employee, which is located below.

When compiling this document, some features of the process are taken into account:

  • the professional qualities of a citizen are necessarily described, since the letter will be used in the process of searching for a new job,
  • provides information on different skills or abilities,
  • indicates how easily and quickly a citizen learns,
  • the achievements recorded at the previous place of work are listed.

It is often even indicated how sociable and sociable a citizen is. This allows you to determine whether he can freely join the established team.

A correctly drafted recommendation often allows citizens to find a truly high-paying and good job. A document is usually drawn up on behalf of the past employer. Often the procedure is performed by the general director.

Some employees independently make a recommendation, which is further signed by the head. In this case, he studies various examples and samples of a letter of recommendation for an organization or an individual, therefore he does not make serious mistakes. Before signing the document, the head of the company must make sure that it contains reliable information.

Is an employer required to draw up a document?

There is no information in the TC that company managers are required to draw up this document for their former employees. Therefore, employers themselves decide on the need for recommendations. This is not their duty.

Often, employees themselves ask former managers for documentation. If good relations are maintained between people, then usually the leader agrees to draw up a document, for which he studies examples of letters of recommendation in advance. The sample allows you to maintain the correct structure and enter the necessary information into the letter.

How is a student recommendation made?

Teachers, deans, or rectors often think about making recommendations for gifted and smart students.

Thanks to this document, a former student can count on a truly prestigious and highly paid job that matches his specialty and skills. When drafting a document, it is advisable to use the example of a recommendation letter from the teacher to include all the necessary data in it. In this case, tips are taken into account:

  • the document clearly spells out what skills a young specialist possesses,
  • It is advisable to indicate information that can really be useful to the future employer,
  • a person who is able to give an objective assessment of the student’s abilities and knowledge
  • all recommendations for the future employer are written that allow the specialist to effectively cope with the job responsibilities,
  • necessarily indicate the contact information of the compiler of the document, so that future employers, if necessary, could contact him to clarify any information,
  • much attention is paid to the moral qualities and personal achievements of the student.

Letters of recommendation drawn up by teachers can be used not only to find work as a young specialist, but also to transfer to a more prestigious educational institution. A document is especially necessary if the student plans to transfer to a foreign university, where such recommendations are really appreciated.

A document can be compiled not only by the teacher, but even by the dean, supervisor or rector. An example of a letter of recommendation to a student is located below.

Procedure for making recommendations for the nanny

Young parents are often forced to use the services of private nannies who look after their children if, for various reasons, it is not possible to send their children to the garden. When choosing a nanny, her experience, age, education and the presence of recommendations from past clients are taken into account. Therefore, many parents after the termination of cooperation with a woman make recommendations for her.

When compiling this document, the rules are taken into account:

  • initially there is a formal part, where the contact details of the nanny, her name, age and passport data are registered,
  • indicates the time period during which the woman worked as a nanny in the family,
  • lists her personal qualities, the nuances of the approach to children, as well as existing relationships with other family members,
  • when writing such a document, it is not necessary to adhere to any strict restrictions, but it should not be made too long.

Usually, women with numerous letters of recommendation evoke positive emotions among parents who are looking for a professional nanny. An example of a nanny letter is located below.

Accountant recommendation

Finding an educated and professional accountant is quite difficult, so potential employers when choosing a specialist pay attention to the availability of recommendations from their previous place of work.

Each company leader can draw up such a document for his employees.

When forming a document, tips are taken into account:

  • you can contact the future employer if he is known in advance,
  • indicates the period of work in the company,
  • lists all the achievements of the accountant,
  • professional skills and abilities of a specialist are given,
  • different personal qualities of a citizen are registered, which allow effective cooperation with him.

An example of a letter of recommendation to an accountant can be studied below. You can end such a letter with various recommendations and wishes. At the end, the signature of the head of the company, as well as the seal of the organization, are necessarily put. The contact details of the originator of the document are left.


Letters of recommendation can be drawn up for many specialists by former employers or teachers. Before the formation of the document, it is desirable to determine what information will be entered into it. Examples of letters of recommendation from the company of the company, from the company to the employee or from the teacher to the student are practically identical in structure, but the content can differ significantly.

For many company executives, the availability of letters of recommendation from the applicant is a decisive factor in deciding on the possibility of hiring a specialist. Therefore, many people try to get recommendations from all places of work.

How to make a recommendation

The recommendation can be written on the letterhead of the enterprise (this will give it a more solid, meaningful look) or on a regular A4 sheet, by hand or on a computer. It is not necessary to certify the form with a seal.

The main condition is that the document contains a “live” signature of its originator.

Usually done one copy recommendations, and if necessary, its certified copies are created.