Although rarely mentioned, drowning is one of the most common causes of death through negligence. By a tragic coincidence, very often people drown near the house: for example, in 2012, 73% of children under 14 drowned in private pools. Fortunately, observing the rules of behavior in water, you can completely avoid situations leading to drowning. It is important to know these rules for those who swim by themselves, observe others, or equip a personal pool for the family.
After witnessing someone drowning, first of all, evaluate your strength.
If you are not a very good swimmer and do not know the basic techniques for capturing a drowning man, in no case try to save a person by swimming towards him.
Since a drowning person may well drag you to the bottom.
Call for help. If there are no lifeguards on the beach, get other people's attention.
Throw a circle or air mattress
If a person is not far from the coast, it is worth trying to lend a hand to him, some long object or throw a life buoy.
So that the drowning man does not drag you into the water, lie on your stomach as close to the water as possible, spread your legs wide and extend a strong hand to the person in the water.
Since the sinking is under the influence of adrenaline, it may not notice your hand.
Say clearly and loudly, but without turning to a hysterical scream, so that a person grabs you by the wrist.
This is very important because:
- Firstly, your task is to reassure the victim, and not to scare him even more by screaming at him.
- Secondly, the wrist-wrist grip is the strongest and the risk of slipping out of the hand is reduced to zero.
It is best to aim at the drowning zone, and then just draw a circle to it. Allow the rope to spin freely during the throw, but be sure to secure the end with your foot.
It is important not to fall into the head of a drowning person, as you will only make it worse. Shout to a man in the water so that he grabs the circle. As soon as he does, immediately pull him to the shore.
To enter the water is only if in no other way to help the drowning man.
It is necessary to minimize the distance to the drowning along the shore, make sure that there are no whirlpools in the water.
It is better to bring some kind of floating device (the same life buoy).
It is strictly forbidden to jump into the water and dive, as pitfalls may appear at the bottom.
You should also not go into the water with a running start - save your strength, you will still need them.
Before entering the water, it is necessary to remove shoes and outerwear from oneself, to turn out pockets (otherwise water will accumulate in them, making movement difficult).
The drowning man’s first reaction will be to climb the lifeguard. So that this does not happen and both do not go to the bottom, you should swim to it from below and behind, grabbing by the shoulder or hair, and pulling his head to the surface.
This method will protect you from capturing the sinking and at the same time provide it with air. Order to grab the circle and immediately begin to move to the shore - your forces are not unlimited.
From time to time, look back to make sure that the person is still holding on to the circle. Upon reaching the shore, help the drowning man get out of the water.
Rules of capture and transportation
To safely carry out a salvation mission, it is not enough just to be able to swim well, you also need to know a number of salvage techniques, because even if you swim safely to a person and deliver him back to shore, there is a capture stage in between.
If you don’t know what to do, if the drowning man began to drag you to the bottom, you can not only not save him, but also drown yourself.
Drowning man keeps calm
If the drowning person does not resist and remains calm, its transportation is greatly simplified. In this case, the following towing method is used:
- Turn a person with his back to himself.
- Place your hands on his lower jaw.
- Fasten your fingers on the chin, but in no case do not cover his mouth.
- Straighten your arms, lie on your back and, moving your legs, tow it to the shore.
- The drowning person should always be supported on the surface of the water.
Drowning in shock or panic
If a person is in a panic, it will be more difficult to bring him ashore:
- First turn the drowning side.
- Put your hand under the armpit of the drowning man’s upper arm.
- Grab the forearm or the other hand of the victim with the same hand.
- Sit on your side.
- Moving legs and one hand, transport the sinking to the shore.
Basic tricks from uncontrolled captures of a drowning man
If the drowning person grabbed your hands, head or body and does not let go, thereby dragging you to the bottom, use the following methods:
- If a man grabbed your hand with his own, you should sharply turn it against the thumb of the victim and jerk toward you.
- If the sinking person grabs both of your hands, do the same.
- Before being released, draw air into the lungs and push with your whole body in the water.
- Whatever happens, push the drowning person up to the air - this gives rise to a better chance that a person will calm down and not get enough water.
- If you are exhausted and want to take a break, leave the drowning person not under the surface, but under water.
- If a person grabbed your head, take a deep breath and dive - the drowning person will immediately unhook.
- If the victim grabbed you by the body, hit him with your elbow on the side.
- If a drowning person grabbed you by the neck, you need to grab his lower arm with one hand and push his head with the other, resting on his chin.
- Also, in the event of any capture, you can make the person let you go by pressing on pain points, such as the groin and throat.
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How to save: first aid on land
Depending on what kind of drowning was, one should dothe following actions:
- If drowning "White", that is, if a person could not breathe and was already unconscious in the water, one should immediately begin resuscitation: do artificial respiration and heart massage.
- If drowning "Blue" then a person swallowed water and was still conscious during salvation - water should be pumped out of the lungs.
Artificial respiration and indirect heart massage are done as follows:
- A roller is placed under the head.
- The nose is pinched with fingers.
- Mouth opens.
- Standing near the victim’s head on his knees, you should exhale air into his mouth once every 4 seconds.
- In the interval between breaths, it is necessary to do rhythmic pressure on the chest in the place between the nipples. It is necessary to press with such force that the sternum moves down by 5 cm.
Remove water from the victim’s lungsit is possible so:
- Get on one knee.
- Bend over the knee drowning belly down.
- Tap him hard on the back in the stomach. All water will flow out.
If a person is conscious
In the event that upon arrival on shore, a person is conscious and breathing normally, immediately rub it with a dry towel, give something hot to drink and take it to a warm room or wrap it in clothes and blankets, because regardless of the temperature of the air and water the thermoregulation of the drowning person is impaired .
Even if the victim is calm, looks good and insists that he is in order, it is necessary to take him to the hospital, as drowning in fresh water requires antibiotics to prevent infection, as well as oxygen inhalation and bronchodilator drugs.
If a person is unconscious
If, having delivered the drowning man to the shore, you find that the person is unconscious, you must immediately remove water from his lungs and begin resuscitation.
Do not rely only on yourself. Call for help. Ask someone to call an ambulance, and begin to provide first aid.
Ask someone to call an ambulance, and begin to provide first aid
It may happen that a person has a pulse, he breathes normally, but is unconscious.
In this case, it is necessary to clean his mouth of silt, algae and vomit and lay on his back, throwing his head back and pulling out the lower jaw.
You should also wrap it with blankets and clothes to normalize thermoregulation.
If a person does not have a pulse
If the pulse is not palpable, it is necessary to immediately begin indirect heart massage and artificial respiration.
If a person does not recover, it is necessary not to stop doing heart massage and artificial respiration until the ambulance arrives or until there are obvious signs of biological death.
There are some safety rules on water:
- It is forbidden to swim in a state of intoxication.
- Bathing time should be short-lived.
- You can not swim if after a meal less than half an hour has passed.
- It is forbidden to swim in the rain, storm or hurricane.
- Do not leave children in water unattended.
- Do not dive in unverified places.
- If you are not confident in your abilities as a swimmer, you should not go to great depths without a life buoy or a person who is really good at swimming.
- Even a great swimmer can drown because of a cramp. It is recommended to attach a pin to the leotard and, in case of a cramp, strongly prick the affected area.
- Do not jump into cold water with extreme heat. In this case, the heart may stop. You must first moisten the skin with water, thereby slightly cooling the body, and only then dive.
Tips & Tricks
Consider the following recommendations:
- If during the salvation of a drowning man you realize that your life is in danger, do not risk it and back off. Reevaluate the situation, call someone for help.
- Entering the water is only if nothing else can be done, because being in the water with a person under the influence of adrenaline is dangerous both for him and for you.
- If a drowning man is not far from the shore and you can reach it with your hand, you should not do it standing up, since with almost one hundred percent probability he will drag you into the water.
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